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indera 05 - SISTEM SENSORIK PENDAHULUAN Sistem sensorik...

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SISTEM SENSORIK
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PENDAHULUAN Sistem sensorik memungkinkan kita merasakan dunia Bertindak sebagai sistem peringatan Nyeri – indikasi menghindari rangsangan yang membahayakan Mengetahui apa yang terjadi dalam tubuh: - Perut terisi makanan – lambung diperintah untuk mencerna
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RESEPTOR DAN SENSASI Reseptor sensorik - Kemoreseptor – perubahan konsentrasi kimia - Nosiseptor – kerusakan jaringan - Termoreseptor – perubahan suhu - Mekanoreseptor – perubahan tekanan atau gerakan cairan tubuh - Fotoreseptor - cahaya
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SENSASI Definisi: kesadaran terhadap informasi sensorik Komponen persepsi terhadap sensasi: - Rangsangan - Reseptor - Saraf sensorik - Daerah khusus pada otak
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Proyeksi Sesudah otak menerima sensasi, merujuk kembali sensasi pada asalnya - Melihat dengan mata - Mendengar dengan telinga Nyeri phantom – membantu pasien belajar menggunakan kaki palsu
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Adaptasi Indera penciuman Kemampuan reseptor untuk beradaptasi bervariasi Reseptor nyeri tidak beradaptasi Reseptor tekanan dan sentuhan beradaptasi secara cepat Reseptor posisi tubuh dan deteksi kimia darah beradaptasi secara lambat
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Indera Indera umum – somatik: Nyeri, sentuhan, tekanan, suhu dan propriosepsi Indera khusus - Rasa - Penciuman - Penglihatan - Pendengaran - Keseimbangan
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Nyeri Tidak beradaptasi Terus mengirimkan sinyal meskipun rangsangan disingkirkan Jaringan otak hanya mengandung sedikit reseptor nyeri Memiliki fungsi pelindung
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Pencetus Nyeri Kerusakan jaringan – mengeluarkan bahan kimia tertentu yang merangsang reseptor nyeri Kekurangan oksigen – serangan jantung Jaringan meregang atau deformasi – usus meregang – terasa nyeri keram
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Nyeri Rujukan Nyeri yang berasal dari jantung dirasakan di bahu dan lengan kiri Jalur saraf yang membawa informasi dari jantung memiliki jalur yang sama dengan yang membawa informasi dari bahu dan lengan kiri
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Jalur Nyeri Reseptor –> saraf perifer –> korda spinalis (traktus spinotalamikus) –> thalamus (sadar tentang nyeri) --> korteks serebri (lobus parietalis): mengidentifikasi sumber, intensitas dan karakteristik lainnya (tajam/tumpul dll) d
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