Part3-Chp%208 Assignment for load shedding

120 ghg emissions energy generation and combustion

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Unformatted text preview: than 150 mg/litre. 120 GHG Emissions Energy generation and combustion activities are the most significant contributor to Pakistan's greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for about 70,000 Gg, or approximately 60% of total estimated emissions in the country. Emissions from fossil fuel combustion comprise the vast majority of these emissions, while releases of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion account for 66,298 Gg. The production, transmission, storage and distribution of fossil fuels also emit greenhouse gases (primarily methane) and are termed fugitive emissions from natural gas systems, oil production/refining and local mining. These gases represent a much smaller portion of total energy emissions than CO but are, nonetheless, important. More than 85% of energy in Pakistan is produced through the use of fossil fuels, primarily natural gas and petroleum. The remaining 15% consists of renewable or other energy sources such as hydropower, biomass and nuclear energy. Emission by Energy Source Energy Source Oil Gas Coal Nuclear/Renewable/Other Total Emission Levels (%) 39.2 38.0 7.7 15.1 100 Source: ENERCON The energy related emissions can be significantly reduced through the implementation of programs that reduce energy consumption and thereby reduce the resulting emissions proportionately; as well as improve the efficiency of combustion and as a result, reduce emissions by a factor possibly much larger than the percentage reduction in energy use. The impact of both these effects is increased profits or lower costs. In addition to the direct reduction in emissions, energy efficiency programs also promote environmental protection by greatly enhancing awareness of the concept of conservation; by training and education of engineers and technicians regarding more efficient management practices; and by developing policies which promote rational pricing of energy. High Costs of Alternative Energy Sources The potential for renewable energy has remained largely unutilised in Pakistan with the exception of mini and micro-hydel power generation. Renewable energy sector has struggled against institutional and policy failures and optimal exploration of additional sources of energy supply has not gone very far. An important factor behind this relatively limited interest is the high costs associated with renewable energy sources. For instance, the plans to harvest solar energy in Pakistan despite extensive solar mapping as the PV costs are 4 times higher that any other energy sources available. Similarly, the potential to exploit wind energy or geothermal power has remained minimal due to high costs associated to establishing proper demonstration units and research laboratories. State Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Oil supply from indigenous resources has been the weakest link in the energy supply system of Pakistan. Until early 1980 crude oil production was a nominal 13,000 barrels per day (BDP), which rose to 64,349...
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2010 for the course MBA 32343 taught by Professor Samghouri during the Spring '10 term at Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology.

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