Part3-Chp%208 Assignment for load shedding

Officials hope to exploit the large untapped coal

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Unformatted text preview: provide a less expensive source of energy. Officials hope to exploit the large, untapped coal reserves in Tharkparkar. At present, coal makes up less than a 5% share in overall energy production. Plans are also underway to expand Pakistan's hydro capacity -- the government approved the construction of 4 new hydro plants to be built in the North West Frontier Province by 2005/2006 that would generate several hundred megawatts of additional power. If the $5.5 billion Kalabagh project is approved -- currently it is being held up because of environmental impact and downstream economic impact concerns -- the new hydro plant could supply 2,400-3,600 MW of generation capacity. The Ghazi Barotha hydro plant came online in 2003 at a cost of $2 billion and a generation capacity of 1,450 MW. Thar Coal Coal currently plays a relatively minor role in Pakistan's energy mix, but the discovery of large volumes of low-ash, low-sulphur lignite in the Tharparkar (Thar) Desert in Sindh province could increase its importance. Thar reserves are being developed under the jurisdiction of the provincial Sindh Coal Authority and have enormous economic potential. The Authority's policy is to develop the reserves primarily to fuel large electric power plants to be built in tandem with the coal mines. A feasibility study recently was carried out for the construction of a coal-fired power plant near the Thar coal mines, and the government has stated that coal should make up more than the current 1% of electric power generation in Pakistan. Impact Pakistan's attempt to raise the living standards of its citizens has meant that economic development has largely taken precedence over environmental issues . Unchecked use of hazardous chemicals, vehicle emissions, and industrial activity has contributed to a number of environmental and health hazards, chief among them being water pollution. Much of the country suffers from a lack of potable water due to industrial waste and agricultural runoff that contaminates drinking water supplies. Poverty and high population growth have aggravated, and to a certain extent, caused, these environmental problems. In the cities, widespread use of low-quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of vehicles on Pakistani roads, has led to significant air pollution problems. Although Pakistan's energy consumption is still low by world standards, lead and carbon emissions are major air 126 pollutants in urban centers such as Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad. In addition, stress on already stretched supply of energy in the county has led to serious civic responsibility problems. Theft or diversion of electricity in transmission, as well as a lack of energy efficiency standards, have contributed to Pakistan's high energy and carbon dioxide intensities. Response Committed Government Pakistan has an installed electricity generation capacity of 19,222 MW, which will produce more than 80,000 GWh of electricity this year (of which 30% is in the private sector). Currently, less than 50% of the country has access to electricity and therefore, the government is committed to further develop this sector in order...
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