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Part3-Chp%208 Assignment for load shedding

Part3-Chp%208 Assignment for load shedding - Pakistan has...

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120 Pakistan has an enormous potential of its energy resources however it still remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Renewable resources that are technologically viable and have prospects to be exploited commercially in Pakistan include micro-hydel, bio-energy, wind and solar energy. Nevertheless increasing demands on limited resources has been a major environmental concern for the country. This resource crunch is exacerbated by use of unclean energy sources and continuing pollution threat. Chapter 8 Energy and Renewable Resources – fuelling the future Pressures The general shortage of energy supply, complemented with inefficient use and wastage continues to broaden the demand supply gap. The cost of load shedding – caused mainly to meet the demand supply gap – is estimated at 1.7% reduction in GDP. This does not include the cost due to lost trade and energy theft. Following sub-sections present some of the key pressures faced by Pakistan’s energy sector. Increased Energy Consumption Pakistan's energy consumption has nearly tripled in the last 20 years, from 0.6 quadrillion Btu in 1980 to 1.9 quads in 2001. Still, Pakistan accounts for less than 0.5% of total world energy consumption. In terms of per capita energy consumption, Pakistan's level of 12.9 million Btu in 2001 was higher than Bangladesh's (3.7 million Btu), but virtually on par with India's (12.6 million). In comparison, China's per capita energy consumption in 2001 was 30.9 million Btu, Iran's was 80.3 million Btu, and Russia's was 195.3 million Btu, while U.S. per capita consumption was 341.8 million Btu. As industry has expanded, factories have emitted more and more toxic effluents into the air. Also, as in other developing countries, the number of vehicles in Pakistan has swelled in recent years--from 680,000 in 1980 to 5 million in 2003. The 1992 National Conservation Strategy Report claims that the average Pakistani vehicle emits 25 times as much carbon dioxide as the average U.S. vehicle, as well as 20 times as many hydrocarbons and more than 3.5 times as many nitrous oxides in grams per kilometre. Cars are the leading source of air pollution that adversely affects Pakistan's economy and population. Economic damages from urban air pollution are estimated at about $370 million, with 6.4 million people hospitalized annually for air-pollution-related illnesses. A recent advertisement placed by the government in a newspaper warned, "Take care of your tune-ups before the poison in the air takes care of you." Many Pakistani environmentalists say that poor fuel quality is also to blame for the country's serious air pollution problems. Fuel consumption rose by 188% in Pakistan from 1980 to 1998, and gasoline continues to contain high levels of lead and sulphurs. Unleaded gasoline was introduced in 2001, but many vehicles in Pakistan's major cities still use leaded gasoline. Various grades of gasoline sold contain about 350 mg/litre of lead--in comparison, leaded gasoline in other countries usually contains no more than 150 mg/litre.
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121 GHG Emissions
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