Introduction to LabVIEW 8.6 in 3 Hours

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Unformatted text preview: National Instruments LabVIEW Campus Workshop January 2009 Edition Part Number 351286B-01 Copyright © 2005–2009 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this publication may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storing in an information retrieval system, or translating, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of National Instruments Corporation. National Instruments respects the intellectual property of others, and we ask our users to do the same. NI software is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws. Where NI software may be used to reproduce software or other materials belonging to others, you may use NI software only to reproduce materials that you may reproduce in accordance with the terms of any applicable license or other legal restriction. Trademarks National Instruments, NI, ni.com, and LabVIEW are trademarks of National Instruments Corporation. Refer to the Terms of Use section on ni.com/legal for more information about National Instruments trademarks. Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries. Product and company names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. Members of the National Instruments Alliance Partner Program are business entities independent from National Instruments and have no agency partnership, or joint-venture relationship with National Instruments. Patents For patents covering National Instruments products/technology, refer to the appropriate location: Help»Patents in your software, the patents.txt file on your media, or the National Instruments Patent Notice at ni.com/patents. Worldwide Technical Support and Product Information ni.com National Instruments Corporate Headquarters 11500 North Mopac Expressway, Austin, Texas 78759-3504 USA Tel: 512 683 0100 Worldwide Offices Australia 1800 300 800, Austria 43 0 662 457990-0, Belgium 32 (0) 2 757 00 20, Brazil 55 11 3262 3599, Canada 800 433 3488, China 86 21 5050 9800, Czech Republic 420 224 235 774, Denmark 45 45 76 26 00, Finland 358 (0) 9 725 72511, France 01 57 66 24 24, Germany 49 89 7413130, India 91 80 41190000, Israel 972 3 6393737, Italy 39 02 41309277, Japan 0120-527196, Korea 82 02 3451 3400, Lebanon 961 0 1 33 28 28, Malaysia 1800 887710, Mexico 01 800 010 0793, Netherlands 31 (0) 348 433 466, New Zealand 0800 553 322, Norway 47 (0) 66 90 76 60, Poland 48 22 328 90 10, Portugal 351 210 311 210, Russia 7 495 783 6851, Singapore 1800 226 5886, Slovenia 386 3 425 42 00, South Africa 27 0 11 805 8197, Spain 34 91 640 0085, Sweden 46 (0) 8 587 895 00, Switzerland 41 56 2005151, Taiwan 886 02 2377 2222, Thailand 662 278 6777, Turkey 90 212 279 3031, United Kingdom 44 0 1635 523545 Contents Introduction and Course Goals The Virtual Instrumentation Approach ......................................................................................................... 3 Section I – LabVIEW Environment A. Setting Up Your Hardware What Type of Device Should I Use? .......................................................................................... 10 Exercise 1 – Testing Your Device (Track A) ................................................................... 12 Exercise 1 – Setting Up Your Device (Track B) .............................................................. 14 Exercise 1 – Setting Up Your Device (Track C) .............................................................. 16 B. LabVIEW Environment Controls Palette........................................................................................................................... 19 Tools Palette ............................................................................................................................... 21 C. Components of a LabVIEW Application Demonstration 1 – Creating a VI ................................................................................................ 24 Dataflow Programming .............................................................................................................. 26 Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with DAQ (Track A) ..................................................... 28 Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with DAQ (Track B) ..................................................... 30 Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with the Sound Card (Track C) ..................................... 32 D. Additional Help Context Help Window ................................................................................................................ 33 Tips for Working in LabVIEW................................................................................................... 34 Section II – Elements of Typical Programs A. Loops While Loop and For Loop .......................................................................................................... 36 B. Functions and SubVIs Three Types of Functions (from the Functions Palette) ............................................................. 38 Creating SubVIs ......................................................................................................................... 41 Exercise 3.1 – Analysis (Tracks A, B and C) ................................................................... 43 Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track A) .................................................................................... 45 Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track B) .................................................................................... 46 Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track C) .................................................................................... 47 C. Decision Making and File I/O Exercise 3.3 – Decision Making and Saving Data (Tracks A, B, and C) ......................... 50 File I/O Programming Model – Under the Hood ........................................................................ 51 Section III – Presenting Your Results A. Displaying Data on the Front Panel What Types of Controls and Indicators Are Available? ............................................................. 53 Charts – Add 1 Data Point at a Time with History ..................................................................... 54 Building Arrays with Loops (Auto-Indexing) ............................................................................ 56 How Do I Time a Loop? ............................................................................................................. 59 Exercise 4.1 – Manual Analysis (Tracks A, B and C) ...................................................... 61 B. Signal Processing Math with the LabVIEW MathScript Node................................................................................ 63 Exercise 4.2 – MathScript (Tracks A, B, and C) .............................................................. 65 Exercise 5 – Apply What You Have Learned (Tracks A, B, and C) ............................... 68 Section IV – Advanced Data flow Topics (Optional) A. Additional Data Types Clusters ....................................................................................................................................... 70 B. Dataflow Constructs Shift Register – Access Previous Loop Data .............................................................................. 74 Local Variables ........................................................................................................................... 75 C. Large Applications Development LabVIEW Navigation Window .................................................................................................. 76 LabVIEW Projects ...................................................................................................................... 77 LabVIEW Case Studies Additional Resources .................................................................................................................. 83 The LabVIEW Certification Program ........................................................................................ 84 NI Multisim and Ultiboard ......................................................................................................... 85 Multisim Integrated with LabVIEW ........................................................................................... 86 Solutions Find more resources online: ni.com/academic © National Instruments Corporation 1 National Instruments Campus Workshop This course prepares you to do the following: • • • • • • • • Use LabVIEW to create applications. Understand front panels, block diagrams, and icons and connector panes. Use built-in LabVIEW functions. Create and save programs in LabVIEW so you can use them as subroutines. Create applications that use plug-in DAQ devices. Programming theory Every built-in LabVIEW function or object Analog-to-digital (A/D) theory This course does not describe any of the following: NI does provide free reference materials on the above topics on ni.com. The LabVIEW Help is also very useful: LabVIEW»Help»Search the LabVIEW Help… National Instruments Campus Workshop 2 ni.com Virtual Instrumentation For more than 30 years, National Instruments has revolutionized the way engineers and scientists in industry, government, and academia approach measurement and automation. Leveraging PCs and commercial technologies, virtual instrumentation increases productivity and lowers costs for test, control, and design applications through easy-to-integrate software, such as NI LabVIEW, and modular measurement and control hardware for PXI, PCI, USB, and Ethernet. With virtual instrumentation, engineers use graphical programming software to create user-defined solutions that meet their specific needs, which is a great alternative to proprietary, fixed-functionality traditional instruments. Additionally, virtual instrumentation capitalizes on the ever-increasing performance of personal computers. For example, in test, measurement, and control, engineers have used virtual instrumentation to downsize automated test equipment (ATE) while experiencing up to a 10 times increase in productivity gains at a fraction of the cost of traditional instrument solutions. Last year 25,000 companies in 90 countries invested in more than 6 million virtual instrumentation channels from National Instruments. © National Instruments Corporation 3 National Instruments Campus Workshop National Instruments LabVIEW is an industry-leading software tool for designing test, measurement, and control systems. Since its introduction in 1986, engineers and scientists worldwide who have relied on NI LabVIEW graphical development for projects throughout the product design cycle have gained improved quality, shorter time to market, and greater engineering and manufacturing efficiency. By using the integrated LabVIEW environment to interface with real-world signals, analyze data for meaningful information, and share results, you can boost productivity throughout your organization. Because LabVIEW has the flexibility of a programming language combined with built-in tools designed specifically for test, measurement, and control, you can create applications that range from simple temperature monitoring to sophisticated simulation and control systems. No matter what your project is, LabVIEW has the necessary tools to make you successful quickly. National Instruments Campus Workshop 4 ni.com Virtual Instrumentation Applications Virtual instrumentation is effective in many different types of applications, from design to prototyping to deployment. The LabVIEW platform provides specific tools and models to meet specific application challenges, ranging from designing signal processing algorithms to making voltage measurements, and can target any number of platforms from the desktop to embedded devices – with an intuitive, powerful graphical paradigm. With Version 8.6, LabVIEW scales from design and development on PCs to several embedded targets, from rugged toaster-size prototypes to embedded systems on chips. LabVIEW streamlines system design with a single graphical development platform. In doing so, it encompasses better management of distributed, networked systems because as the targets for LabVIEW grow varied and embedded, you need to be able to more easily distribute and communicate between the various LabVIEW code pieces in your system. © National Instruments Corporation 5 National Instruments Campus Workshop Integrated Hardware Platforms A virtual instrument consists of an industry-standard computer or workstation equipped with powerful application software, cost-effective hardware such as plug-in boards, and driver software, which together perform the functions of traditional instruments. Virtual instruments represent a fundamental shift from traditional hardware-centered instrumentation systems to software-centered systems that exploit the computing power, productivity, display, and connectivity capabilities of popular desktop computers and workstations. Although the PC and integrated circuit technology have experienced significant advances in the last two decades, software truly offers the flexibility to build on this powerful hardware foundation to create virtual instruments, providing better ways to innovate and significantly reduce cost. With virtual instruments, engineers and scientists build measurement and automation systems that suit their needs exactly (user-defined) instead of being limited by traditional fixed-function instruments (vendor-defined). National Instruments Campus Workshop 6 ni.com © National Instruments Corporation 7 National Instruments Campus Workshop This LabVIEW course is designed for audiences with or without access to National Instruments hardware. Each exercise is divided into three tracks, A, B, and C Track A is designed to be used with hardware supported by the NI-DAQmx driver. This includes most USB, PCI, and PXI data acquisition devices with analog input. Some signal conditioning and excitation (external power) is required to use a microphone with a DAQ device. Track B is designed to be used with no hardware. You can simulate the hardware with NI-DAQmx Version 8.0 and later. This is done by using the NI-DAQmx Simulated Device option in the Create New menu of MAX. The simulated device’s driver is loaded, and programs using it are fully verified. Track C is designed to be used with a standard sound card and microphone. LabVIEW includes simple VIs for analog input and analog output using the sound card built into many PCs. This is convenient for laptops because the sound card and microphone are usually already built-in. National Instruments Campus Workshop 8 ni.com Setting Up Your Hardware for Your Selected Track Track A – NI Data Acquisition with Microphone USB-6009, Microphone and LED Suggested Hardware Qty Part Number 1 1 1 1 1 779321-22 270-092 Description Low-Cost USB DAQ Electret Microphone 100 Ω Resistor 220 Ω Resistor Light Emitting Diode (LED) Supplier National Instruments RadioShack RadioShack RadioShack RadioShack 276-307 The following schematic was drawn with NI Multisim, a widely used SPICE schematic capture and simulation tool. Visit ni.com/Multisim for more info. Track B – Simulated NI Data Acquisition NI-DAQmx Software Version 8.0 or later Track C – Third-Party Sound Card Sound card and Microphone Suggested Hardware Qty 1 Part Number Description Supplier Standard Plug-In PC Microphone* RadioShack * Laptops often have a built-in microphone (no plug-in microphone is required) © National Instruments Corporation 9 National Instruments Campus Workshop What type of device should I use? There are many types of data acquisition and control devices on the market. A few have been are many types of data acquisition and control devices on the market few have been highlighted above. The trade-off usually falls between sampling rate (samples/second), resolution (bits), number of channels, and data transfer rate (usually limited by “bus” type: USB, PCI, PXI, and so on). Multifunction DAQ (data acquisition) devices are ideal because they can be used in a wide range of applications. NI USB-6008 and USB-6009 Low-Cost USB DAQ The National Instruments USB-6009 device provides basic data acquisition functionality for applications such as simple data logging, portable measurements, and academic lab experiments. The USB-6008 and USB-6009 are ideal for students. Create your own measurement application by programming the USB-6009 using LabVIEW and NI-DAQmx driver software for Windows. For Mac OS X and Linux® users, download and use the NI-DAQmx Base driver. USB-6009 Specifications: • Eight 14-bit analog inputs • 12 digital I/O lines • 2 analog outputs • 1 counter Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries. National Instruments Campus Workshop 10 ni.com/daq ni.com The next level of software is called Measurement & Automation Explorer (MAX). MAX is a software interface that gives you access to all of your National Instruments DAQ, GPIB, IMAQ, IVI, Motion, VISA, and VXI devices. The shortcut to MAX appears on your desktop after installation. A picture of the icon is shown above. MAX is mainly used to configure and test your National Instruments hardware, but it does offer other functionality such as checking to see if you have the latest version of NI-DAQmx installed. When you run an application using NI-DAQmx, the software reads the MAX configuration to determine the devices you have configured. Therefore, you must configure DAQ devices first with MAX. The functionality of MAX falls into six categories: • • • • • • Data Neighborhood Devices and Interfaces IVI Instruments Scales Historical Data Software This course will focus on Data Neighborhood, Devices and Interfaces, Scales, Software, and you will learn about the functionality each one offers. © National Instruments Corporation 11 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 1 – Testing Your Device (Track A) In this exercise, use Measurement and Automation Explorer (MAX) to test your USB-6009 DAQ device. 1. Launch MAX by double-clicking the icon on the desktop or by selecting Start» Programs»National Instruments»Measurement & Automation. 2. Expand the Devices and Interfaces section to view the installed National Instruments devices. MAX displays the National Instruments hardware and software in the computer. 3. Expand the NI-DAQmx Devices section to view the installed hardware that is compatible with NI-DAQmx. The device number appears in quotes following the device name. The data acquisition VIs use this device number to determine which device performs DAQ operations. Your hardware is listed as NI USB-6009: “Dev1.” 4. Perform a self-test on the device by right-clicking it in the configuration tree and choosing Self-Test or clicking Self-Test along the top of the window. This tests the system resources assigned to the device. The device should pass the test because it is already configured. 5. Check the pinout for your device. Right-click the device in the configuration tree and select Device Pinouts or click Device Pinouts along the top of the center window. 6. Open the test panels. Right-click the device in the configuration tree and select Test the test panels Right the device in the configuration tree and select Test Panels… or click Test Panels… along the top of the center window. With test panels, you can test the available functionality of your device, analog input/output, digital input/output, and counter input/output without doing any programming. 7. On the Analog Input tab of the test panels, change Mode to “Continuous” and Rate to “10,000 Hz.” Click Start and hum or whistle into your microphone to observe the signal that is plotted. Click Stop when you are done. 8. On the Digital I/O tab, notice that initially the port is configured to be all input. Observe under Select State the LEDs that represent the state of the input lines. Click the All Output button under Select Direction. Notice you now have switches under Select State to specify the output state of the different lines. Toggle line 0 and watch the LED light up. Click Close to close the test panels. 9. Close MAX. National Instruments Campus Workshop 12 ni.com End of Exercise 1 (Track A) © National Instruments Corporation 13 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 1 – Setting Up Your Device (Track B) In this exercise, use Measurement and Automation Explorer (MAX) to configure a simulated DAQ device. 1. Launch MAX by double-clicking the icon on the desktop or by selecting Start» Programs»National Instruments»Measurement & Automation. 2. Expand the Devices and Interfaces section to view the installed National Instruments devices. MAX displays the National Instruments hardware and software in the computer. The device number appears in quotes following the device name. The data acquisition VIs use this device number to determine which device performs DAQ operations. 3. Create a simulated DAQ device for use later in this course. Simulated devices are a powerful tool for development without having hardware physically installed in your computer. Right-click Devices and Interfaces and select Create New…» NI-DAQmx Simulated Device. Click Finish. The simulated device appears yellow in color. 4. Expand the M Series DAQ section. Select PCI-6220 or any other PCI device of your choice. Click OK. 5. The NI-DAQmx Devices folder expands to show a new entry for PCI-6220: “Dev1.” You have now created a simulated device. 6. Perform a self-test on the device by right-clicking it in the configuration tree and choosing Self choosing Self-Test or clicking Self-Test along the top of the window. This tests the clicking Self the top of the window This tests the system resources assigned to the device. The device should pass the test because it is already configured. 7. Check the pinout for your device. Right-click the device in the configuration tree and select Device Pinouts or click Device Pinouts along the top of the center window. 8. Open the test panels. Right-click the device in the configuration tree and select Test Panels… or click Test Panels… along the top of the center window. The test panels allow you to test the available functionality of your device, analog input/output, digital input/output, and counter input/output without doing any programming. 9. On the Analog Input tab of the test panels, change Mode to “Continuous.” Click Start and observe the signal that is plotted. Click Stop when you are done. National Instruments Campus Workshop 14 ni.com 10. On the Digital I/O tab, notice that initially the port is configured to be all input. Observe under Select State the LEDs that represent the state of the input lines. Click the All Output button under Select Direction. Note that you now have switches under Select State to specify the output state of the different lines. Click Close to close the test panels. 11. Close MAX. End of Exercise 1 (Track B) © National Instruments Corporation 15 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 1 – Setting Up Your Device (Track C) In this exercise, use Windows utilities to verify your sound card and prepare it for use with a microphone. 1. Prepare your microphone for use. Double-click the volume control icon on the task bar to open up the configuration window. You also can find the sound configuration window from the Windows Control Panel: Start»Settings»Control Panel»Sounds and Audio Devices»Advanced. 2. If you do not see a microphone section, go to Options»Properties»Recording and place a checkmark in the box next to Microphone. This displays the microphone volume control. Click OK. 3. Uncheck the Mute box if it is not already unchecked. Make sure that the volume is turned up. Uncheck Mute 4. Close the volume control configuration window. 5. Open the sound recorder by selecting Start»Programs»Accessories» Entertainment»Sound Recorder. 6. Click the record button and speak into your microphone. Notice how the sound signal is displayed in the sound recorder. 7. Click Stop and close the sound recorder without saving changes when you are finished. End of Exercise 1 (Track C) National Instruments Campus Workshop 16 ni.com LabVIEW LabVIEW is a graphical programming language that uses icons instead of lines of text to create applications. In contrast to text-based programming languages, where li instructions determine program execution, LabVIEW uses dataflow programming, where the flow of data determines execution order. You can purchase several add-on software toolkits for developing specialized applications. All the toolkits integrate seamlessly in LabVIEW. Refer to the National Instruments Web site for more information about these toolkits. LabVIEW also includes several wizards to help you quickly configure your DAQ devices and computer-based instruments and build applications. LabVIEW Example Finder LabVIEW features hundreds of example VIs you can use and incorporate into VIs that you create. In addition to the example VIs that are shipped with LabVIEW, you can access hundreds of example VIs on the NI Developer Zone (zone.ni.com). You can modify an example VI to fit an application, or you can copy and paste from one or more examples into a VI that you create. © National Instruments Corporation 17 National Instruments Campus Workshop LabVIEW programs are called virtual instruments (VIs). Controls are inputs and indicators are outputs. Each VI contains three main parts: • • • Front panel – How the user interacts with the VI Block diagram – The code that controls the program Icon/connector – The means of connecting a VI to other VIs In LabVIEW, you build a user interface by using a set of tools and objects. The user interface is known as the front panel. You then add code using graphical representations of functions to control the front panel objects. The block diagram contains this code. In some ways, the block diagram resembles a flowchart. You interact with the front panel when the program is running. You can control the program, change inputs, and see data updated in real time. Controls are used for inputs such as adjusting a slide control to set an alarm value, turning a switch on or off, or stopping a program. Indicators are used as outputs. Thermometers, lights, and other indicators display output values from the program. These may include data, program states, and other information. Every front panel control or indicator has a corresponding terminal on the block diagram. When you run a VI, values from controls flow through the block diagram, where they are used in the functions on the diagram, and the results are passed into other functions or indicators through wires. National Instruments Campus Workshop 18 ni.com Use the Controls palette to place controls and indicators on the front panel. The Controls palette is available only on the front panel. To view the palette, select Window»Show Controls Palette. You also can display the Controls palette by rightclicking an open area on the front panel. Tack down the Controls palette by clicking the pushpin on the top left corner of the palette. © National Instruments Corporation 19 National Instruments Campus Workshop Use the Functions palette to build the block diagram. The Functions palette is available only on the block diagram. To view the palette, select Window»Show Functions Palette. You also can display the Functions palette by right-clicking an open area on the block diagram. Tack down the Functions palette by clicking the pushpin on the top left corner of the palette. National Instruments Campus Workshop 20 ni.com If you enable the automatic selection tool and you move the cursor over objects on the front panel or block diagram, LabVIEW automatically selects the corresponding tool from the Tools palette. Toggle automatic selection tool by clicking the Automatic Selection Tool button in the Tools palette. Use the Operating Tool to change the values of a control or select the text within a control. Use the Positioning/Resizing Tool to select, move, or resize objects. The Positioning Tool changes shape when it moves over a corner of a resizable object. Use the Labeling Tool to edit text and create free labels. The Labeling Tool changes to a cursor when you create free labels. Use the Wiring Tool to wire objects together on the block diagram. Other important tools: © National Instruments Corporation 21 National Instruments Campus Workshop • Click the Run button to run the VI. While the VI runs, the Run button appears with a black arrow if the VI is a top-level VI, meaning it has no callers and therefore is not a subVI. Click the Continuous Run button to run the VI until you abort or pause it. You also can click the button again to disable continuous running. While the VI runs, the Abort Execution button appears. Click this button to stop the VI immediately. • • Note: Avoid using the Abort Execution button to stop a VI. Either let the VI complete its data flow or design a method to stop the VI programmatically. By doing so, the VI is at a known state. For example, place a button on the front panel that stops the VI when you click it. • Click the Pause button to pause a running VI. When you click the Pause button, LabVIEW highlights on the block diagram the location where you paused execution. Click the Pause button again to continue running the VI. Select the Text Settings pull-down menu to change the font settings for the VI, including size, style, and color. Select the Align Objects pull-down menu to align objects along axes, including vertical, top edge, left, and so on. Select the Distribute Objects pull-down menu to space objects evenly, including gaps, compression, and so on. Select the Resize Objects pull-down menu to change the width and height of front panel objects. • • • • National Instruments Campus Workshop 22 ni.com • Select the Reorder pull-down menu when you have objects that overlap each other and you want to define which one is in front or back of another. Select one of the objects with the Positioning Tool and then select from Move Forward, Move Backward, Move To Front, and Move To Back. Click the Execution Highlighting button to see the flow of data through the block diagram. Click the button again to disable execution highlighting. Click the Retain Wire Values button to save the wire values at each point in the flow of execution so that when you place a probe on a wire, you can immediately obtain the most recent value of the data that passed through the wire. Click the Step Into button to single-step into a loop, subVI, and so on. Singlestepping through a VI steps through the VI node to node. Each node blinks to denote when it is ready to execute. By stepping into the node, you are ready to single-step inside the node. Click the Step Over button to step over a loop, subVI, and so on. By stepping over the node, you execute the node without single-stepping through the node. Click the Step Out button to step out of a loop, subVI, and so on. By stepping out of a node, you complete single-stepping through the node and go to the next node. Note: The following items only appear on the block diagram toolbar. • • • • • Additional Tools Retain Wire Values © National Instruments Corporation 23 National Instruments Campus Workshop When you create an object on the front panel, a terminal is created on the block diagram. These terminals give you access to the front panel objects from the block diagram code. Each terminal contains useful information about the front panel object it corresponds to, and uses color and symbols to provide information about the data type. For example, the dynamic data type is a polymorphic data type represented by dark blue terminals. Boolean terminals are green with TF lettering. In general, blue terminals should wire to blue terminals, green to green, and so on. This is not a hard-and-fast rule; you can use LabVIEW to connect a blue terminal (dynamic data) to an orange terminal (fractional value), for example. But in most cases, look for a match in colors. Controls have a thick border and an arrow on the right side. Indicators have a thin border and an arrow on the left side. Logic rules apply to wiring in LabVIEW: Each wire must have one (but only one) source (or control), and each wire may have multiple destinations (or indicators). National Instruments Campus Workshop 24 ni.com LabVIEW uses many common data types – Boolean, numeric, strings, clusters, and so on. The color and symbol of each terminal indicate the data type of the control or indicator. Control terminals have a thicker border than indicator terminals. Also, arrows appear on front panel terminals to indicate whether the terminal is a control or an indicator. An arrow appears on the right if the terminal is a control and on the left if the terminal is an indicator. Definitions • Array: Arrays group data elements of the same type. An array consists of elements and dimensions. Elements are the data that make up the array. A dimension is the length, height, or depth of an array. An array can have one or more dimensions and as many as (231) – 1 elements per dimension, memory permitting. Cluster: Clusters group data elements of mixed types, much like a bundle of wires in a telephone cable, where each wire in the cable represents a different element of the cluster. • See Help»Search the LabVIEW Help… for more information. The LabVIEW User Manual on ni.com provides additional references for data types found in LabVIEW. © National Instruments Corporation 25 National Instruments Campus Workshop LabVIEW follows a dataflow model for running VIs. A block diagram node executes when all its inputs are available. When a node completes execution, it supplies data to its output terminals and passes the output data to the next node in the dataflow path. Visual Basic, C++, JAVA, and most other text-based programming languages follow a control flow model of program execution. In control flow, the sequential order of program elements determines the execution order of a program. Consider the block diagram above. It adds two numbers and then multiplies by 2 from the result of the addition. In this case, the block diagram executes from left to right, not because the objects are placed in that order but because one of the inputs of the Multiply function is not valid until the Add function has finished executing and passed the data to the Multiply function. Remember that a node executes only when data are available at all of its input terminals, and it supplies data to its output terminals only when it finishes execution. In the second piece of code, the Simulate Signal Express VI receives input from the controls and passes its result to the graph. You may consider the add-multiply and the simulate signal code to coexist on the same block diagram in parallel. This means that they begin executing at the same time and run independently of one another. If the computer running this code had multiple processors, these two pieces of code could run independently of one another (each on its own processor) without any additional coding. National Instruments Campus Workshop 26 ni.com When your VI is not executable, a broken arrow is displayed in the Run button in the palette. • • • • • Finding Errors: To list errors, click on the broken arrow. To locate the bad object, click on the error message. Execution Highlighting: Animates the diagram and traces the flow of the data, allowing you to view intermediate values. Click on the light bulb on the toolbar. Probe: Used to view values in arrays and clusters. Click on wires with the Probe tool or right-click on the wire to set probes. Retain Wire Values: Used with probes to view the values from the last iteration of the program. Breakpoint: Sets pauses at different locations on the diagram. Click on wires or objects with the Breakpoint tool to set breakpoints. © National Instruments Corporation 27 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with DAQ (Track A) Complete the following steps to create a VI that acquires data continuously from your DAQ device. 1. Launch LabVIEW. 2. In the Getting Started window, click the File»New or the New dialog box. More … link to display 3. Open a data acquisition template. From the Create New list, select VI»From Template»DAQ»Data Acquisition with NI-DAQmx.vi and click OK. 4. Display the block diagram by clicking it or by selecting Window»Show Block Diagram. Read the instructions written there about how to complete the program. 5. Double-click the DAQ Assistant to launch the configuration wizard. 6. Configure an analog input operation. a. Choose Acquire Signals»Analog Input»Voltage. b. Choose Dev1 (USB-6009)»ai0 to acquire data on analog input channel 0 and click Finish. c. In the next window, define the parameters of your analog input operation. To choose an input range that works well with your microphone, on the Settings tab enter 2 V for the maximum and –2 V for the minimum. Under timing settings choose “Continuous” for the acquisition mode and enter 10000 for the rate Leave all other choices set to their default values Click OK exit the rate. Leave all other choices set to their default values. Click OK to exit the wizard. 7. Place the Filter Express VI to the right of the DAQ Assistant on the block diagram. From the Functions palette, select Express»Signal Analysis»Filter and place it on the block diagram inside the While Loop. When you bring up the Functions palette, press the small pushpin in the upper left-hand corner of the palette. This tacks down the palette so that it remains visible. This step is omitted in the following exercises, but you should repeat it. In the configuration window under Filtering Type, choose “Highpass.” Under Cutoff Frequency, use a value of "300 Hz." Click OK. National Instruments Campus Workshop 28 ni.com 8. Make the following connections on the block diagram by hovering your mouse over the terminal so that it becomes the wiring tool and clicking once on each of the terminals you wish to connect: a. Connect the Data output terminal of the DAQ Assistant VI to the Signal input of the Filter VI. b. Create a graph indicator for the filtered signal by right-clicking on the Filtered Signal output terminal and choosing Create»Graph Indicator. 9. Return to the front panel by selecting Window»Show Front Panel or by pressing <Ctrl-E>. 10. Run your program by clicking the Run button. Hum or whistle into the microphone to observe the changing voltage on the graph. 11. Click Stop once you are finished. 12. Save the VI as Exercise 2 – Acquire.vi in your Exercises folder and close it. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. Tip: You can place the DAQ Assistant on your block diagram from the Functions palette. Right-click the block diagram to open the Functions palette and go to Express»Input to find it. End of Exercise 2 (Track A) © National Instruments Corporation 29 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with DAQ (Track B) Complete the following steps to create a VI that acquires data continuously from your simulated DAQ device. 1. Launch LabVIEW. 2. In the Getting Started window, click the File»New or the New dialog box. More … link to display 3. Open a data acquisition template. From the Create New list, select VI»From Template»DAQ»Data Acquisition with NI-DAQmx.vi and click OK. 4. Display the block diagram by clicking it or by selecting Window»Show Block Diagram. Read the instructions written there about how to complete the program. 5. Double-click the DAQ Assistant to launch the configuration wizard. 6. Configure an analog input operation. a. Choose Acquire Signals»Analog Input»Voltage. b. Choose Dev1 (PCI-6220)»ai0 to acquire data on analog input channel 0 and click Finish. c. In the next window, define the parameters of your analog input operation. On the task timing tab, choose “Continuous” for the acquisition mode, enter 10000 for samples to read, and 10000 for the rate. Leave all the other choices set to their default values. Click OK to exit the wizard. 7. Create a graph indicator for the signal by right-clicking on the “Data” output on the DAQ Assistant and choosing Create»Graph Indicator. 8. Return to the front panel by selecting Window»Show Front Panel or by pressing <Ctrl-E>. 9. Run your program by clicking the run button. Observe the simulated sine wave on the graph. 10. Click Stop once you are finished. 11. Save the VI as Exercise 2 – Acquire.vi in the Exercises folder. Close the VI. Notes: • • The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. You can place the DAQ Assistant on your block diagram from the Functions palette. Right-click the block diagram to open the Functions palette and go to Express»Input to find it. When you bring up the Functions palette, press the small pushpin in the upper left-hand corner of the palette. This tacks down the palette so that it doesn’t disappear. This step is omitted in the following exercises, but you should repeat it. National Instruments Campus Workshop 30 ni.com End of Exercise 2 (Track B) © National Instruments Corporation 31 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 2 – Acquiring a Signal with the Sound Card (Track C) Complete the following steps to create a VI that acquires data from your sound card. 1. Launch LabVIEW. 2. In the Getting Started window, click the Blank VI link. 3. Display the block diagram by pressing <Ctrl-E> or selecting Window»Show Block Diagram. 4. Place the Acquire Sound Express VI on the block diagram. Right-click to open the functions palette and select Express»Input»Acquire Sound. Place the Express VI on the block diagram. 5. In the configuration window under #Channels, select 1 from the pull-down list. Under Duration(s), use a value of 5 seconds. Click OK. 6. Place the Filter Express VI to the right of the Acquire Signal VI on the block diagram. From the Functions palette, select Express»Signal Analysis»Filter and place it on the block diagram. In the configuration window under Filtering Type, choose “Highpass.” Under Cutoff Frequency, use a value of 300 Hz. Click OK. 7. Make the following connections on the block diagram by hovering your mouse over the terminal so that it becomes the wiring tool and clicking once on each of the terminals you wish to connect: a. Connect the Data output terminal of the Acquire Sound VI to the Signal input of the Filter VI. b. Create a graph indicator for the filtered signal by right-clicking on the Filtered Signal output terminal and choose Create»Graph Indicator. 8. Return to the front panel by pressing <Ctrl-E> or Window»Show Front Panel. 9. Run your program by clicking the Run button. Hum or whistle into your microphone and observe the data you acquire from your sound card. 10. Save the VI as Exercise 2 – Acquire.vi in the Exercises folder. 11. Close the VI. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise (Track C) National Instruments Campus Workshop 32 ni.com The Context Help window displays basic information about LabVIEW objects when you move the cursor over each object. Objects with context help information include VIs, functions, constants, structures, palettes, properties, methods, events, and dialog box components. To display the Context Help window, select Help»Show Context Help, press the <Ctrl-H> keys, or press the Show Context Help Window button in the toolbar. Connections displayed in Context Help: Required – bold Recommended – normal Optional – dimmed Additional Help • VI, Function, & How-To Help is also available – – – • – Help»VI, Function, & How-To Help Right-click the VI icon and choose Help, or Choose “Detailed Help” on the Context Help window Help»Search the LabVIEW Help… LabVIEW Help – reference style help © National Instruments Corporation 33 National Instruments Campus Workshop LabVIEW has many keystroke shortcuts that make working easier. The most common shortcuts are listed above. While the Automatic Selection Tool is great for choosing the tool you would like to use in LabVIEW, there are sometimes cases when you want manual control. Once the Automatic Selection Tool is turned off, use the Tab key to toggle between the four most common tools (Operate Value, Position/Size/Select, Edit Text, Set Color on front panel and Operate Value, Position/Size/Select, Edit Text, Connect Wire on block diagram). Once you are finished with the tool you chose, you can press <Shift-Tab> to turn the Automatic Selection Tool back on. In the Tools»Options… dialog, there are many configurable options for customizing your front panel, block diagram, colors, printing, and so on. Similar to the LabVIEW options, you can configure VI-specific properties by going to File»VI Properties… .There you can document the VI, change the appearance of the window, and customize it in several other ways. National Instruments Campus Workshop 34 ni.com © National Instruments Corporation 35 National Instruments Campus Workshop Both the While and For Loops are located on the Functions»Structures palette. The For Loop differs from the While Loop in that the For Loop executes a set number of times. A While Loop stops executing the subdiagram only if the value at the conditional terminal exists. While Loops Similar to a Do loop or a Repeat-until loop in text-based programming languages, a While Loop, shown at the top right, executes a subdiagram until a condition is met. The While Loop executes the subdiagram until the conditional terminal, an input terminal, receives a specific Boolean value. The default behavior and appearance of the conditional terminal is Stop If True. When a conditional terminal is Stop If True, the While Loop executes its subdiagram until the conditional terminal receives a TRUE value. The iteration terminal (an output terminal), shown at left, contains the number of completed iterations. The iteration count always starts at zero. During the first iteration, the iteration terminal returns 0. For Loops A For Loop, shown above, executes a subdiagram a set number of times. The value in the count terminal (an input terminal) represented by the N, indicates how many times to repeat the subdiagram. The iteration terminal (an output terminal), shown at left, contains the number of completed iterations. The iteration count always starts at zero. During the first iteration, the iteration terminal returns 0. National Instruments Campus Workshop 36 ni.com Place loops in your diagram by selecting them from the Functions palette: • • • When selected, the mouse cursor becomes a special pointer that you use to enclose the section of code you want to include in the While Loop. Click the mouse button to define the top-left corner and then click the mouse button again at the bottom-right corner. The While Loop boundary appears around the selected code. Drag or drop additional nodes in the While Loop if needed. © National Instruments Corporation 37 National Instruments Campus Workshop LabVIEW 7.0 introduced a new type of subVI called Express VIs. These are interactive VIs that have a configuration dialog box that helps the user customize the functionality of the Express VI. LabVIEW then generates a subVI based on these settings. SubVIs are VIs (consisting of a front panel and a block diagram) that are used within another VI. Functions are the building blocks of all VIs. Functions do not have a front panel or a block diagram. National Instruments Campus Workshop 38 ni.com LabVIEW includes several hundred prebuilt functions to help you acquire, analyze, and present data. You would generally use these functions as outlined on the slide above. LabVIEW Toolkits Additional toolkits are available for adding domain-specific functionality to LabVIEW. These toolkits include: Application Deployment and Targeting Modules * LabVIEW Mobile Module * LabVIEW Real-Time Module * LabVIEW FPGA Module * NI Vision Development Module for LabVIEW Embedded System Deployment * DSP Test Integration Toolkit * Embedded test integration toolkits * Digital Filter Design Toolkit * LabVIEW FPGA Module Signal Processing and Analysis * Sound and Vibration Toolkit * Advanced Signal Processing Toolkit * Modulation Toolkit * Spectral Measurements Toolkit * Order Analysis Toolkit * Digital Filter Design Toolkit Software Engineering and Optimization Tools * Real-Time Execution Trace Toolkit * Express VI Development Toolkit * State Diagram Toolkit * VI Analyzer Toolkit Control Design and Simulation * LabVIEW Control Design and Simulation Module * LabVIEW Real-Time Module * System Identification Toolkit * State Diagram Toolkit Image Processing and Acquisition * Vision Development Module for LabVIEW * NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection * NI-IMAQ for IEEE 1394 ni.com/toolkits © National Instruments Corporation 39 National Instruments Campus Workshop Use the buttons on top of the palette windows to navigate, search, and edit the palettes. You can search for controls, VIs, and functions that either contain certain words or start with certain words. Double-clicking a search result opens the palette that contains the search result. You also can click and drag the name of the control, VI, or function directly to the front panel or block diagram. National Instruments Campus Workshop 40 ni.com Creating SubVIs After you build a VI, you can use it in another VI. A VI called from the block diagram of another VI is called a subVI. You can reuse a subVI in other VIs. To create a subVI, you need to build a connector pane and create an icon. A subVI node corresponds to a subroutine call in text-based programming languages. A block diagram that contains several identical subVI nodes calls the same subVI several times. The subVI controls and indicators receive data from and return data to the block diagram of the calling VI. Click the Select a VI icon or text on the Functions palette, navigate to and double-click a VI, and place the VI on a block diagram to create a subVI call to that VI. You can easily customize subVI input and output terminals as well as the icon. Follow the instructions below to quickly create a subVI. Creating SubVIs from Sections of a VI Convert a section of a VI into a subVI by using the Positioning tool to select the section of the block diagram you want to reuse and selecting Edit»Create SubVI. An icon for the new subVI replaces the selected section of the block diagram. LabVIEW creates controls and indicators for the new subVI, automatically configures the connector pane based on the number of control and indicator terminals you selected, and wires the subVI to the existing wires. See Help»Search the LabVIEW Help…»SubVIs for more information. © National Instruments Corporation 41 National Instruments Campus Workshop A subVI node corresponds to a subroutine call in text-based programming languages. The node is not the subVI itself, just as a subroutine call statement in a program is not the subroutine itself. A block diagram that contains several identical subVI nodes calls the same subVI several times. The modular approach makes applications easier to debug and maintain. The functionality of the subVI does not matter for this example. The important point is the passing of two numeric inputs and one numeric output. National Instruments Campus Workshop 42 ni.com Exercise 3.1 – Analysis (Tracks A, B, and C) Create a VI that produces a sine wave with a specified frequency and displays the data on a waveform chart until stopped by the user. 1. Open a blank VI from the Getting Started screen. 2. Place a chart on the front panel. Right-click to open the Controls palette and select Controls»Modern»Graph»Waveform Chart. 3. Place a dial control on the front panel. From the Controls palette, select Controls» Modern»Numeric»Dial. Notice that when you first place the control on the front panel, the label text is highlighted. While this text is highlighted, type Frequency In to give a name to this control. 4. Go to the block diagram (<Ctrl-E>) and put down a While Loop. Right-click to open the Functions palette and select Express»Execution Control»While Loop. Click and drag on the block diagram to make the While Loop the correct size. Select the waveform chart and dial and drag them inside the While Loop if they are not already. Notice that a Stop button is already connected to the conditional terminal of the While Loop. 1. Place the Simulate Signal Express VI on the block diagram. From the Functions the Simulate Signal Express VI on the block diagram From the Functions palette, select Express»Signal Analysis»Simulate Signal and place it on the block diagram inside the While Loop. In the configuration window under Timing, choose “Simulate acquisition timing.” Click OK. 6. Place a Tone Measurements Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Signal Analysis»Tone). In the configuration window, choose Amplitude and Frequency measurements in the Single Tone Measurements section. Click OK. © National Instruments Corporation 43 National Instruments Campus Workshop 7. Make the following connections on the block diagram by hovering your mouse over the terminal so that it becomes the wiring tool and clicking once on each of the terminals you wish to connect: a. Connect the “Sine” output terminal of the Simulate Signal VI to the “Signals” input of the Tone Measurements VI. b. Connect the “Sine” output to the waveform chart. c. Create indicators for the amplitude and frequency measurements by rightclicking on each of the terminals of the Tone Measurements Express VI and selecting Create»Numeric Indicator. d. Connect the “Frequency In” control to the “Frequency” terminal of the Simulate Signal VI. 8. Return to the front panel and run the VI. Move the “Frequency In” dial and observe the frequency of the signal. Click the Stop button once you are finished. 9. Save the VI as Exercise 3.1 – Simulated.vi. 10. Close the VI. Notes • When you bring up the Functions palette, press the small pushpin in the upper left-hand corner of the palette. This tacks down the palette so that it doesn’t disappear. This step is omitted in the following exercises, but you should repeat it. The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. • End of Exercise 3.1 (Tracks A, B, and C) National Instruments Campus Workshop 44 ni.com Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track A) Create a VI that measures the frequency of a filtered signal from your USB-6009 DAQ device and displays the acquired signal on a waveform chart. The instructions are similar to Exercise 3.1, but you use DAQ Assistant in place of the Simulate Signal VI and you use Filter Express VI. Try to do this without following the instructions. 1. Open a blank VI. 2. Place a waveform chart on the front panel. Right-click to open the Controls palette and select Controls»Modern»Graph»Waveform Chart. 3. Place a numeric meter on the front panel. The meter is found in Controls»Modern» Numeric»Meter. 4. Right-click the y-axis on the waveform chart and deselect AutoScale Y. 5. Change the scale on the y-axis to –0.15 to 0.15 V by double-clicking the maximum and minimum axis values and typing the new value. Change the scale of the meter to 100 to 2000. 6. Go to the block diagram and place a While Loop around the chart and the meter (Express»Execution Control»While Loop). 7. Place the DAQ Assistant on the block diagram (Express»Input»DAQ Assistant). Choose analog input on channel ai0 of your device and click Finish. On the Task Timing tab, choose “Continuous” for the acquisition mode. If you are using the USB-6009, change the Input Range to – 2 to 2, the number of Samples to Read to 1000, and the Rate (Hz) to 44100. 8. Place the Filter Express VI to the right of the DAQ Assistant on the block diagram. From the Functions palette, select Express»Signal Analysis»Filter and place it on the block diagram inside the While Loop. In the configuration window under Filtering Type, choose “Highpass.” Under Cutoff Frequency, use a value of 300 Hz. Click OK. 9. Connect the “Data” output terminal of the DAQ Assistant to the “Signal” input of the Filter VI. 10. Connect the waveform chart to the “Filtered Signal” output. 11. Place a Tone Measurements Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Signal Analysis»Tone). Select “Frequency” under Single Tone Measurements. 12. Connect the output of the Filter VI to the “Signals” input of the Tone Measurements Express VI. Also, connect the “Frequency” output to the meter. 13. Return to the front panel and run the VI. Observe your acquired signal and its frequency and amplitude. Hum or whistle into the microphone and observe the frequency that you are producing. 14. Save the VI as Exercise 3.2 - Data.vi. 15. Close the VI. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 3.2 (Track A) © National Instruments Corporation 45 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track B) Create a VI that measures the frequency of a filtered simulated signal and shows the difference between the filtered and unfiltered signal. You have to simulate the noise in the Simulate Signal Express VI. Try to do this without following the instructions. 1. Open a blank VI. 2. Place two waveform charts on the front panel. Right-click to open the Controls palette and select Controls»Modern»Graph»Waveform Chart. 3. Place a numeric meter on the front panel. The Meter is found in Controls»Modern» Numeric»Meter. 4. Right-click the y-axis on each waveform chart and deselect AutoScale Y. 5. Change the scale on the y-axis on both charts to –1 to 1 V by double-clicking the maximum and minimum axis values and typing the new value. Change the scale of the meter to 0 to 30. 6. Go to the block diagram and put a While Loop around the charts and the meters (Express»Execution Control»While Loop). 7. Place a Simulate Signal Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Input» Simulate Sig). Change the Frequency (Hz) to 20, Select to add noise, and set the Samples per Second (Hz) to 10000. 8. Ensure that the Noise Type is “Uniform White Noise” and the Noise Amplitude is “0.2.” 9. Place the Filter Express VI to the right of the DAQ Assistant on the block diagram. From the Functions palette, select Express»Signal Analysis»Filter and place it on the block diagram inside the While Loop. In the configuration window under Filtering Type, choose “Lowpass.” Under Cutoff Frequency, use a value of 35 Hz. Click OK. 10. Connect the output terminal of the Simulate Signal VI to the “Signal” input of the Filter VI. Connect the waveform charts to the “Filtered Signal” output and the output of the Simulate Signal VI. 11. Place a Tone Measurements Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Signal Analysis»Tone). Select “Frequency” under Single Tone Measurements. 12. Connect the output of the Filter VI to the “Signals” input of the Tone Measurements Express VI. Also, connect the “Frequency” output to the meter. 13. Return to the front panel and run the VI. Observe your acquired signal and its frequency and amplitude. Hum or whistle into the microphone and observe the frequency that you are producing. 14. Save the VI as Exercise 3.2 - Data.vi. 15. Close the VI. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 3.2 (Track B) National Instruments Campus Workshop 46 ni.com Exercise 3.2 – Analysis (Track C) Create a VI that measures the frequency of the signal from your sound card and displays the acquired signal on a waveform chart. The instructions are similar to Exercise 3.1, but you use the Acquire Sound Signal VI in place of the Simulate Signal VI and a Filter Express VI. Try to do this without following the instructions. 1. Open a blank VI. 2. Place a waveform chart on the front panel. Right-click to open the Controls palette and select Controls»Modern»Graph»Waveform Chart. 3. Place a numeric meter on the front panel. The meter is found in Controls» Numeric»Meter. 4. Right-click the y-axis on the waveform chart and deselect AutoScale Y. 5. Change the scale on the y-axis to –1 to 1 V by double-clicking the maximum and minimum axis values and typing the new value. Change the scale of the meter to 100 to 2000. 6. Go to the block diagram and put a While Loop down (Express»Execution Control»While Loop). 7. Place the Acquire Sound Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Input» Acquire Sound). 8. Change the sample rate to 44100 and Click OK. 9. Place a Filter Express VI on the block diagram. In the configuration window, choose a highpass filter and a cutoff frequency of 300 Hz. 10. Place a Tone Measurements Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Signal Analysis»Tone). In the configuration window, choose “Amplitude” and “Frequency” measurements in the Single Tone Measurements section. 11. Connect the meter to the “Frequency” output of the Tone Measurements VI. 12. Connect the “Data” terminal of the Acquire Sound Express VI to the “Signal” input of the Filter VI. 13. Connect the “Filtered Signal” terminal of the Filter VI to the “Signals” input of the Tone Measurements VI. Select “Frequency” under Single Tone Measurements. 14. Return to the front panel and run the VI. Observe the signal from your sound card and its amplitude and frequency. Hum or whistle into the microphone and observe the amplitude and frequency you are producing. 15. Save the VI as Exercise 3.2-Data.vi. Close the VI. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 3.2 (Track C) © National Instruments Corporation 47 National Instruments Campus Workshop Case Structure The case structure has one or more subdiagrams, or cases, one of which executes when the structure executes. The value wired to the selector terminal determines which case to execute and can be Boolean, string, integer, or enumerated type. Right-click the structure border to add or delete cases. Use the Labeling tool to enter value(s) in the case selector label and configure the value(s) handled by each case. It is found at Functions» Programming»Structures»Case Structure. Select Returns the value wired to the t input or f input, depending on the value of s. If s is TRUE, this function returns the value wired to t. If s is FALSE, this function returns the value wired to f. The connector pane displays the default data types for this polymorphic function. It is found at Functions»Programming» Comparison»Select. • • • Example A: Boolean input. Simple if-then case. If the Boolean input is TRUE, the true case executes; otherwise the FALSE case executes. Example B: Numeric input. The input value determines which box to execute. If out of range of the cases, LabVIEW chooses the default case. Example C: When the Boolean passes a TRUE value to the Select VI, the value 5 is passed to the indicator. When the Boolean passes a FALSE value to the Select VI, 0 is passed to the indicator. National Instruments Campus Workshop 48 ni.com Use LabVIEW measurement data files to save data that the Write Measurement File Express VI generates. The LabVIEW data file is a tab-delimited text file you can open with a spreadsheet application or a text-editing application. In addition to the data an Express VI generates, the .lvm file includes information about the data, such as the date and time the data was generated. File I/O operations pass data from memory to and from files. In LabVIEW, you can use File I/O functions to: • • • • • • • Open and close data files Read data from and write data to files Read from and write to spreadsheet-formatted files Move and rename files and directories Change file characteristics Create, modify, and read a configuration file Write to or read from LabVIEW measurement files In the next example, examine how to write to or read from LabVIEW measurement files (*.lvm files). © National Instruments Corporation 49 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 3.3 – Decision Making and Saving Data (Tracks A, B, and C) Create a VI that you can use to save your data to file if the frequency of your data goes below a user-controlled limit. 1. Open Exercise 3.2 – Data.vi. 2. Go to File»Save As… and save it as Exercise 3.3 – Decision Making and Saving Data. In the Save As dialog box, make sure substitute copy for original is selected and click Continue… 3. Add a case structure to the block diagram inside the While Loop (Functions» Programming»Structures»Case Structure). 4. Inside the “true” case of the case structure, add a Write to Measurement File Express VI (Functions»Programming»File I/O»Write to Measurement File). a. In the configuration window that opens, choose “Save to series of files (multiple files).” Note the default location your file will be saved to and change it if you wish. b. Click Settings… and choose “Use next available file name” under the Existing Files heading. c. Under File Termination, choose to start a new file after 10 segments. Click OK twice. 5. Add code so that if the frequency computed from the Tone Measurements Express VI goes below a user-controlled limit, the data will be saved to file. Hint: Go to Functions»Programming»Comparison»Less? 6. Remember to connect your data from the Filter Express VI to the “Signals” input of the Write to Measurement File VI. If you need help, refer to the solution of this exercise. 7. Go to the front panel and run your VI. Vary your frequency limit and then stop the VI. 8. Navigate to My Documents»LabVIEW Data (or the location you specified) and open one of the files that was saved there. Examine the file structure and check to verify that 10 segments are in the file. 9. Save your VI and close it. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 3.3 (Tracks A, B, and C) National Instruments Campus Workshop 50 ni.com Programming Model for the Intermediate File VIs This same programming model applies to data acquisition, instrument control, file I/O, and most other communication schemes. In most instances, you open the file or communication channel, read and write multiple times, and then close or end the communication. It is also good programming practice to check for errors at the end. Remember this programming model when you move on to more advanced programming or look inside DAQ, communication, or File I/O Express VIs. File I/O VIs and Functions Use the File I/O VIs and functions to open and close files; read from and write to files; create directories and files you specify in the path control; retrieve directory information; and write strings, numbers, arrays, and clusters to files. Use the high-level File I/O VIs located on the top row of the palette to perform common I/O operations, such as writing to or reading from various types of data. Acceptable types can include characters or lines in text files, 1D or 2D arrays of single-precision numeric values in spreadsheet text files, 1D or 2D arrays of single-precision numeric values in binary files, or 16-bit signed integers in binary files. Use low-level File I/O VIs and functions located on the middle row of the palette as well as the Advanced File Functions to control each file I/O operation individually. Use the principal low-level functions to create or open, write data to, read data from, and close a file. You also can use low-level functions to create directories; move, copy, or delete files; list directory contents; change file characteristics; or manipulate paths. Refer to NI Developer Zone for more information about choosing a file format. © National Instruments Corporation 51 National Instruments Campus Workshop National Instruments Campus Workshop 52 ni.com Controls and indicators are front panel items that you can use to interact with your program to provide input and display results. You can access controls and indicators by right-clicking the front panel. In addition, you obtain additional controls and indicators when you install toolkits and modules. For example, when you install the control design tools, you can use specialized plots, such as Bode and Nyquist, that are not available by default. © National Instruments Corporation 53 National Instruments Campus Workshop The waveform chart is a special numeric indicator that displays one or more plots. It is located on the Controls»Modern»Graph palette. Waveform charts can display single or multiple plots. The following front panel shows an example of a multiplot waveform chart. You can change the minimum and maximum values of either the x-axis or y-axis by double-clicking on the value with the labeling tool and typing the new value. Similarly, you can change the label of the axis. You can also right-click the plot legend and change the style, shape, and color of the trace that is displayed on the chart. National Instruments Campus Workshop 54 ni.com Graphs are very powerful indicators in LabVIEW. You can use these highly customizable tools to concisely display a great deal of information. With the properties page of the graph, you can display settings for plot types, scale and cursor options, and many other features of the graph. To open the properties page, right-click the graph on the front panel and choose Properties. You can also create technical-paper-quality graphics with the “export simplified image” function. Right-click the graph and select Data Operations»Export Simplified Image… © National Instruments Corporation 55 National Instruments Campus Workshop For Loops and While Loops can index and accumulate arrays at their boundaries. This is known as auto-indexing. • • • • • The indexing point on the boundary is called a tunnel The For Loop is auto-indexing-enabled by default The While Loop is auto-indexing-disabled by default Enable auto-indexing to collect values within the loop and build the array. All values are placed in the array upon exiting the loop. Disable auto-indexing if you are interested only in the final value. Examples: National Instruments Campus Workshop 56 ni.com To create an array control or indicator as shown, select an array on the Controls»Modern» Array, Matrix, and Cluster palette, place it on the front panel, and drag a control or indicator into the array shell. If you attempt to drag an invalid control or indicator such as an XY graph into the array shell, you are unable to drop the control or indicator in the array shell. You must insert an object in the array shell before you use the array on the block diagram. Otherwise, the array terminal appears black with an empty bracket. © National Instruments Corporation 57 National Instruments Campus Workshop To add dimensions to an array one at a time, right-click the index display and select Add Dimension from the shortcut menu. You also can use the Positioning tool to resize the index display until you have as many dimensions as you want. 1D Array Viewing a Single Element 1D Array Viewing Multiple Elements 2D Array Viewing a Single Element 2D Array Viewing Multiple Elements National Instruments Campus Workshop 58 ni.com Time Delay The Time Delay Express VI delays execution by a specified number of seconds. Time Delay Express VI delays execution by specified number of seconds Following the rules of dataflow programming, the While Loop does not iterate until all tasks inside of it are complete, thus delaying each iteration of the loop. Timed Loops Executes each iteration of the loop at the period you specify. Use the timed loop when you want to develop VIs with multirate timing capabilities, precise timing, feedback on loop execution, timing characteristics that change dynamically, or several levels of execution priority. Double-click the Input Node or right-click the Input Node and select Configure Timed Loop from the shortcut menu to display the Loop Configuration dialog box, where you can configure the timed loop. The values you enter in the Loop Configuration dialog box appear as options in the Input Node. Wait Until Next ms Multiple This function waits until the value of the millisecond timer becomes a multiple of the specified millisecond multiple to help you synchronize activities. You can call this function in a loop to control the loop execution rate. However, it is possible that the first loop period might be short. This function makes asynchronous system calls, but the nodes themselves function synchronously. Therefore, it does not complete execution until the specified time has elapsed. This function can be found at Functions» Programming»Timing»Wait Until Next ms Multiple. © National Instruments Corporation 59 National Instruments Campus Workshop Properties are all the qualities of a front panel object. With properties, you can set or read such characteristics as foreground and background color, data formatting and precision, visibility, descriptive text, size and location on the front panel, and so on. National Instruments Campus Workshop 60 ni.com Exercise 4.1 – Manual Analysis (Tracks A, B, and C) Create a VI that displays simulated data on a waveform graph and measures the frequency and amplitude of that data. Use cursors on the graph to verify the frequency and amplitude measurements. 1. Open Exercise 3.1 – Simulated.vi. 2. Save the VI as Exercise 4.1 – Manual Analysis.vi. 3. Go to the block diagram and remove the While Loop. Right-click the edge of the loop and choose Remove While Loop so that the code inside the loop does not get deleted. 4. Delete the Stop control. 5. On the front panel, replace the waveform chart with a waveform graph. Right-click the chart and select Replace»Modern»Graph»Waveform Graph. 6. Make the cursor legend viewable on the graph. Right-click on the graph and select Visible Items»Cursor Legend. 7. Change the maximum value of the “Frequency In” dial to 100. Double-click on the maximum value and type 100 once the text is highlighted. 8. Set a default value for the “Frequency In” dial by setting the dial to the value you would like, right-clicking the dial, and selecting Data Operations»Make Current Value Default. 9. Run the VI and observe the signal on the waveform graph. If you cannot see the the VI and observe the signal on the waveform graph If you cannot see the signal, you may need to turn on auto-scaling for the x-axis. Right-click on the graph and select X Scale»AutoScale X. 10. Change the frequency of the signal. Run the VI again so you can see a few periods on the graph. 11. Manually measure the frequency and amplitude of the signal on the graph using cursors. Right-click on the graph and select Visible Items »Cursor Legend to show the cursor legend. To add a cursor on the graph, right-click on the cursor pane and choose Create Cursor»Free. Once the cursors are displayed, you can drag them around on the graph and their coordinates appear in the cursor legend. 12. Remember that the frequency of a signal is the reciprocal of its period (f = 1/T). Does your measurement match the frequency and amplitude indicators from the Tone Measurements VI? 13. Save your VI and close it. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 4.1 (Tracks A, B, and C) © National Instruments Corporation 61 National Instruments Campus Workshop Overview With the release of LabVIEW 8.6, you have new freedom to choose the most effective syntax for technical computing, whether you are developing algorithms, exploring DSP concepts, or analyzing results. You can instrument your scripts and develop algorithms on the block diagram by interacting with popular third-party math tools such as The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB® software, Wolfram Mathematica, Maplesoft Maple, MathSoft Mathcad, ITT IDL, and NI Xmath. Use of these math tools with LabVIEW is achieved in a variety of ways depending on the vendor as listed below: Native LabVIEW textual math node LabVIEW MathScript Node, Formula Node Communication with vendor software through LabVIEW node Xmath node, MATLAB script Node, Maple* Node, IDL* Node Communication with vendor software through VI Server Mathematica* VIs, Mathcad* VIs In LabVIEW, you can combine the intuitive LabVIEW graphical dataflow programming with LabVIEW MathScript, a math-oriented textual programming language that is generally compatible with popular .m file script language. *LabVIEW toolkit specific to the math tool must be installed. National Instruments Campus Workshop 62 ni.com The LabVIEW MathScript Node enhances LabVIEW by adding a native textbased language for mathematical algorithm implementation in the graphical programming environment. You can open and use the .m file scripts you’ve written and saved from the LabVIEW MathScript window in the LabVIEW MathScript Node. The .m file scripts you created in other math software generally run as well. With LabVIEW MathScript you can pick the syntax you are most comfortable with to solve the problem. You can instrument equations with the LabVIEW MathScript Node for parameter exploration, simulation, or deployment in a final application. The LabVIEW MathScript Node • • • • • • • Located in the Programming»Structures subpalette. Resizable box for entering textual computations directly into block diagrams. To add variables, right-click and choose Add Input or Add Output. Name variables as they are used in the formula. (Names are case sensitive.) You can change the data type of the output by right-clicking the input or output node. Terminate the statements with a semicolon to suppress output. Right-click on the node to import and export .m files. © National Instruments Corporation 63 National Instruments Campus Workshop The LabVIEW MathScript window provides an interactive environment where you can prototype equations and make calculations The MathScript prototype equations and make calculations. The MathScript window and MathScript and MathScript Node share a common syntax and global variables, making the move from prototype to implementation seamless. The data preview pane provides a convenient way to view variable data as numbers, graphically, or audibly (with sound card support). Help for LabVIEW MathScript You can access help for the environment using the LabVIEW MathScript interactive environment window. Type Help in the command window for an introduction to LabVIEW MathScript help. Typing Help followed by a function will display help specific to that function. Features of the interactive MathScript window • • • • • • Prototype equations and formulas through the Command Window Easily access function help by typing Help <function> in the Command Window Select a variable to display its data in the preview pane and listen to the result Write, save, load, and run .m files using the Script tab Share data between the MathScript Node and the MathScript window using global variables Take advantage of advanced plotting features and image export features National Instruments Campus Workshop 64 ni.com Exercise 4.2 – MathScript (Tracks A, B, and C) Create a VI that uses the LabVIEW MathScript Node to alter your simulated signal and graph it. Use the interactive LabVIEW MathScript window to view and alter the data and then load the script you have created back into the LabVIEW MathScript Node. 1. Open Exercise 3.1 – Manual Analysis.vi. 2. Save the VI as Exercise 4.2 – MathScript.vi. 3. Go to the block diagram and delete the wire connecting the Simulate Signal VI to the Waveform Graph. 4. Place down a LabVIEW MathScript Node (Programming»Structures» MathScript Node). 5. Right-click on the left border of the LabVIEW MathScript Node and select Add Input. Name this input In by typing while the input node is highlighted black. 6. Convert the Dynamic Data Type output of the Simulate Signals VI to a 1D array of scalars to input to the LabVIEW MathScript Node. Place a Convert from Dynamic Data Express VI on the block diagram (Express»Signal Manipulation»Convert from Dynamic Data). By default, the VI is configured correctly, so click OK in the configuration window. 7. Wire the “Sine” output of the Simulate Signal VI to the “Dynamic Data” input of the Convert from Dynamic Data VI the Convert from Dynamic Data VI. 8. Wire the “Array” output of the Convert from Dynamic Data Express VI to the “In” node on the LabVIEW MathScript Node. 9. To use the data from the Simulate Signal VI in the interactive LabVIEW MathScript window, declare the input variable as a global variable. Inside the LabVIEW MathScript Node, type global In;. Note: Do not forget the ; or the LabVIEW MathScript Node stops operations immediately. 10. Return to the front panel and increase the frequency to be between 50 and 100. Run the VI. 11. Open the interactive LabVIEW MathScript window (Tools»MathScript Window…). 12. In the MathScript window, you can use the Command Window to enter the command that you wish to compute. In the Command Window, type “global In” and press Enter. By doing this, you can see the data passed to the variable “In” on the LabVIEW MathScript Node. © National Instruments Corporation 65 National Instruments Campus Workshop 13. Notice that all declared variables in the script along with their dimensions and type are listed on the Variables tab. To display the graphed data, click once on the variable In and change the pull-down menu below from “Numeric” to “Graph.” 14. Use the Graph palette to zoom in on your data. 15. Right-click on Cursor 1 and choose Bring to Center. What does this do? 16. Drag the cursor around. The cursor does not move if you select the zoom option. 17. Right-click on the graph and choose Undock Window. What does this do? Close this new window when you are finished. National Instruments Campus Workshop 66 ni.com 18. Multiply the data by a decreasing exponential function. Follow these steps: a. Make a 100-element array of data that constitutes a ramp function going from 0.01 to 5 by typing Array = [0.01:0.05:5]; in the Command Window and pressing <Enter>. What type of variable is “Array”? b. Make an array containing a decreasing exponential. Type Exp = 5*exp(Array); and press <Enter>. c. Now multiply the Exp and In arrays by typing Out = In.*Exp; and pressing <Enter>. d. Look at the graph of the variable “Out”. 19. Go to the History tab and use <Ctrl-click> to choose the four commands you just entered. Copy those commands using <Ctrl-C>. 20. On the Script tab, paste the commands into the Script Editor using <Ctrl-V>. 21. Save your script by clicking Save at the bottom of the window. Save it as myscript.txt. 22. Close the LabVIEW MathScript window. 23. Return to the block diagram of Exercise 4.2 – MathScript. Load the script you just made by right-clicking on the MathScript Node border and selecting Import… Navigate to myscript.txt, select it, and click OK. 24. Right-click on the right border of the MathScript Node and select Add Output. Name this output “Out”. 25. Right-click on the variable “Out” and select Choose Data Type»1D-Array»DBL 1D. Output data types must be set manually on the MathScript Node. 26. Wire “Out” to the waveform graph. 27. Return to the front panel and run the VI. Does the data look like you expect? 28. Save and close your VI. Note: The solution to this exercise is printed in the back of this manual. End of Exercise 4.2 (Tracks A, B, and C) © National Instruments Corporation 67 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 5 – Apply What You Have Learned (Tracks A, B, and C) In this exercise, create a VI that uses what you have learned. Design a VI that does the following: 1. Acquires data from your device (or creates a simulated signal) and graphs it. 2. Filters that data using the Filter Express VI (Functions»Express»Signal Analysis» Filter). There should be a front panel control for a user-configurable cutoff frequency. 3. Takes a fast Fourier transform to get the frequency information from the filtered data and graph the result. Use the Spectral Measurements Express VI (Functions» Express»Signal Analysis»Spectral). 4. Finds the dominant frequency of the filtered data using the Tone Measurements Express VI. 5. Compares that frequency to a user-inputted limit. If the frequency is over that limit, light up an LED on the front panel. If you have a USB-6009, light up the LED on your hardware using the DAQ Assistant. You need to invert the digital line for the LED to light up when over the limit. You can specify this in the configuration window of the DAQ Assistant or with a “not” Boolean function. 6. If you get stuck, open up the solution or view it at the end of this manual. End of Exercise 5 (Tracks A, B, and C) National Instruments Campus Workshop 68 ni.com © National Instruments Corporation 69 National Instruments Campus Workshop Clusters group like or unlike components together. They are equivalent to a record in Pascal or a struct in ANSI C. Cluster components may be of different data types. Examples • • Error information – Grouping a Boolean error flag, a numeric error code, and an error source string to specify the exact error. User information – Grouping a string indicating a user’s name and an ID number specifying the user’s security code. All elements of a cluster must be either controls or indicators. You cannot have a string control and a Boolean indicator. Think of clusters as grouping individual wires (data objects) together into a cable (cluster). National Instruments Campus Workshop 70 ni.com Create a cluster front panel object by choosing Cluster from the Controls»Modern» Array, Matrix & Cluster palette. • • • This option gives you a shell (similar to the array shell when creating arrays). You can size the cluster shell when you drop it. Right-click inside the shell and add objects of any type. Note: You can even have a cluster inside of a cluster. The cluster becomes a control or an indicator cluster based on the first object you place inside the cluster. You can also create a cluster constant on the block diagram by choosing Cluster Constant from the Cluster palette. • • • This gives you an empty cluster shell. You can size the cluster when you drop it. Put other constants inside the shell. Note: You cannot place terminals for front panel objects in a cluster constant on the block diagram, nor can you place “special” constants like the Tab or Empty String constant within a block diagram cluster shell. © National Instruments Corporation 71 National Instruments Campus Workshop The terms bundle and cluster are closely related in LabVIEW. Example: You use a bundle function to create a cluster. You use an unbundle function to extract the parts of a cluster. Bundle – Forms a cluster containing the given objects in the specified order. Bundle by Name – Updates specific cluster object values (the object must have an owned label). Unbundle – Splits a cluster into each of its individual elements by data type. Unbundle by Name – Returns the cluster elements whose names you specify. Note: You must have an existing cluster wired into the middle terminal of the function to use Bundle By Name. National Instruments Campus Workshop 72 ni.com The waveform data type carries the data, start time, and ∆t of a waveform. You can create waveforms using the Build Waveform function. Many of the VIs and functions you use to acquire or analyze waveforms accept and return the waveform data type by default. When you wire a waveform data type to a waveform graph or chart, the graph or chart automatically plots a waveform based on the data, start time, and ∆x of the waveform. When you wire an array of waveform data types to a waveform graph or chart, the graph or chart automatically plots all the waveforms. Build Waveform Builds a waveform or modifies an existing waveform with the start time represented as an absolute timestamp. Timestamps are accurate to real-world time and date and are very useful for real-world data recording. Bundle Builds a waveform or modifies an existing waveform with a relative timestamp. The input to t0 is a DBL. By building waveforms using the bundle, you can plot data on the negative x-axis (time). © National Instruments Corporation 73 National Instruments Campus Workshop Shift registers transfer data from one iteration to the next: • • • Right-click on the left or right side of a For Loop or a While Loop and select Add Shift Register. The right terminal stores data at the end of an iteration. Data appears at the left terminal at the start of the next iteration. A shift register adapts to any data type wired into it. An input of 0 would result in an output of 5 for the first iteration, 10 for the second iteration, and 15 for the third iteration. Said another way, you use shift registers to retain values from one iteration to the next. They are valuable for many applications that have memory or feedback between states. The feedback node (pictured below) is another representation of the same concept. Both programs pictured behave the same. See Help»Search the LabVIEW Help… for more information. National Instruments Campus Workshop 74 ni.com Sometimes you may need to access a front panel object from more than one place on the block diagram or to pass data between structures that you cannot connect by a wire. To accomplish these tasks, you would use a local variable. Local variables are located on the Functions palette under Programming»Structures. When you place a local variable on the diagram, it contains by default the name (owned label) of the first object you placed on the front panel. You use a local variable by first selecting the object you want to access. You can either click on the local variable with the Operating tool and select the object you want to access, or right-click on the local variable and choose the object from the Select Item menu. Next, you must decide to either read or write to the object. Right-click on the local variable and choose Change to Read or Change to Write. © National Instruments Corporation 75 National Instruments Campus Workshop Select View»Show Navigation Window to display this window. Use the window to navigate large front panels or block diagrams. Click an area of the image in the Navigation Window to display that area in the front panel or block diagram window. You also can click and drag the image in the Navigation Window to scroll through the front panel or block diagram. National Instruments Campus Workshop 76 ni.com LabVIEW Project Use projects to group together LabVIEW and other files, create build specifications, and deploy or download files to targets. A target is a device or machine on which a VI runs. When you save a project, LabVIEW creates a project file (.lvproj), which includes configuration information, build information, deployment information, references to files in the project, and so on. You must use a project to build stand-alone applications and shared libraries. You also must use a project to work with a real-time, FPGA, or PDA target. Refer to the specific module documentation for more information about using projects with the LabVIEW Real-Time, LabVIEW FPGA, and LabVIEW Mobile modules. Project-style LabVIEW Plug and Play instrument drivers use the project and project library features in LabVIEW 8.0. You can use project-style drivers in the same way as previous LabVIEW Plug and Play drivers. Project Explorer Window Use the Project Explorer window to create and edit projects. Select File»New Project to display the Project Explorer window. You also can select Project»New Project or select File»New and then select Empty Project in the New dialog box to display the Project Explorer window. © National Instruments Corporation 77 National Instruments Campus Workshop National Instruments Campus Workshop 78 ni.com This LabVIEW VI allows two human players to play chess. Using several custom controls and many of the LabVIEW constructs that you’ve worked with in this manual, the VI determines legitimate moves and displays the game in real time. The block diagram shown in the above slide handles the high-level management of the subVIs and acts as the user interface. The block diagram shown below is used to reset the board. © National Instruments Corporation 79 National Instruments Campus Workshop Using the code shown in the block diagram below, this LabVIEW VI calculates a projectile’s ballistic trajectory based on the fundamental kinematic equations. Note the use of decision making using case structures and the modularity provided by the three subVIs. National Instruments Campus Workshop 80 ni.com This VI uses several more advanced LabVIEW functions to calculate the position of your mouse cursor on the monitor. The VI uses two key elements. The first, event your mouse cursor on the monitor. The VI uses two key elements. The first, event structures, are like case structures, but they are triggered from events instead of front panel elements. These events can include moving or clicking the mouse, using the keyboard, and many, many others. The other element that the VI uses are property nodes. With property nodes, you can read or set many properties of various VI elements and elements of the system. These are just some of the many powerful tools in LabVIEW that remain for you to discover. © National Instruments Corporation 81 National Instruments Campus Workshop National Instruments Campus Workshop 82 ni.com © National Instruments Corporation 83 National Instruments Campus Workshop Today, more and more companies and hiring managers are looking for LabVIEW expertise when they evaluate job candidates. The LabVIEW Certification Program is built on a series of professional exams. LabVIEW certifications are used to validate LabVIEW expertise and skills for employment opportunities and for project bids. The Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer is the first step for LabVIEW certification and it demonstrates a strong foundation in using LabVIEW and the LabVIEW environment. As a student, your Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer certification differentiates your LabVIEW skills for employment opportunities and helps potential employers recognize your LabVIEW expertise. The CLAD is a one-hour multiple-choice exam conducted at Pearson VUE testing centers around the country. The exam covers multiple topics on the LabVIEW environment including dataflow concepts, programming structures, advanced file I/O techniques, modular programming practices, VI object properties, and control references. Thinking about getting your CLAD certification? Take the free online LabVIEW Fundamentals Exam as a sample test. The Certified LabVIEW Developer and Architect professional certifications validate advanced LabVIEW knowledge and application development experience. Additionally, the Architect certification also demonstrates skills in leading project teams and large application development experience. These four-hour practical exams are conducted by National Instruments. The NI LabVIEW Academy provides classroom curriculum and hands-on exercises to colleges and universities. After completion of the LabVIEW Academy program, students have the knowledge and tools to attempt the Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer certification exam with confidence. National Instruments Campus Workshop 84 ni.com Multisim software integrates powerful SPICE simulation and schematic capture entry into a highly intuitive electronics lab on the PC. As the only company to design products specifically for the education market, National Instruments provides software that has become a teaching and learning tool of choice for thousands of educators. Multisim – Simulation and Capture Multisim is an intuitive, drag-and-drop schematic capture and simulation program that educators and students can use to quickly create complete circuits containing both analog and digital components. Multisim also adds microcontroller unit cosimulation capabilities, so you can include an MCU, programmed in assembly code, within your SPICE-modeled circuit. Ultiboard – PCB Layout With Ultiboard, students can gain exposure to the physical implementation and manufacturing of circuits on PCBs. Students can import the Multisim schematic into Ultiboard with a single mouse click. © National Instruments Corporation 85 National Instruments Campus Workshop 1. Multisim – Schematics • Easy-to-use schematics • Simple click and drag • 3D animated parts • Wire drag without breaking connections 2. Multisim – Virtual Breadboard • Breadboarding techniques • Synchronized with schematic • Wiring report for NI ELVIS (step 5) 3. Multisim – Simulation • 13,000+ part library • 22+ NI ELVIS virtual instruments • Changes on the fly • Microcontroller simulation • Animated parts (LEDs and 7-segment displays) 4. Ultiboard – PCB Layout • Integrated with Multisim • Flexible interface • 3D view • Design rule check • Built-in autorouting 5. NI ELVIS – Test • Instrumentation • Data acquisition • Prototyping 6. LabVIEW – Compare • Automatically import: – Multisim virtual data – NI ELVIS measured data • Compare ideal and real data National Instruments Campus Workshop 86 ni.com © National Instruments Corporation 87 National Instruments Campus Workshop Solutions Exercise 2 Track A Exercise 2 Track B Exercise 2 Track C National Instruments Campus Workshop 88 ni.com Exercise 3.1 Track A, B, and C © National Instruments Corporation 89 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 3.2 Track A Exercise 3.2 Track B Exercise 3.2 Track C National Instruments Campus Workshop 90 ni.com Exercise 3.2 Track A Exercise 3.2 Track B Exercise 3.2 Track C © National Instruments Corporation 91 National Instruments Campus Workshop Exercise 4.1 Track A, B, and C Exercise 4.2 Track A, B, and C National Instruments Campus Workshop 92 ni.com Exercise 5 Track A Exercise 5 Track B Exercise 5 Track C © National Instruments Corporation 93 National Instruments Campus Workshop ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2010 for the course ME 451 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Oregon State.

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