E-government implications from an organizational and technol

E-government implications from an organizational and...

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Unformatted text preview: E-governance implications from an organizational and technological perspective. Marc Holzer, Ph.D. –Professor and Executive Director of the National Center for Public Productivity –Immediate Past President, American Society for Public Administration –e-mail: mholzer@pipeline.com Jim Melitski –Senior Research Associate, E-governance Institute –e-mail: jmelitsk@rci.rutgers.edu IT and Organizational Implications of E-governance • • • • • Strategic vision Centralization Knowledge management Integration Human resource management and consultants Centralization • Two organizational change models for sustaining innovation (Light, 2000): – Managed innovation model (Centralized) – Sustaining innovation model (Decentralized) • Reinvention and decentralization: Decentralized institutions are more flexible, effective, innovative, productive and they encourage higher morale (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992). • The effect of IT and e-government on decision-making – Information technology and e-government facilitate decentralized decision making (Heeks, 1999). – Centralization (and decentralization) is a conscious management decision that is made when implementing innovative technologies and information technology (Zuboff, 1988). – The difference between a centralized and decentralized model depends on the individual (Peled, 2001). Strategic vision • Multipurpose: Justify expenditures and provide enterprise-wide vision for future. • If one of the goals of e-government is to transform public agencies, then it is also critical to ensure new initiatives meet strategic objectives. • Traditional strategic planning – e.g. SWOT Analysis. • IT related strategic management: Business Process Re-engineering. – Examines mission critical objectives as well as workflow processes. Inefficient paper processes that are web enabled are still inefficient. Knowledge Management • Data, Information, and Knowledge (…. Wisdom) • Issue: How to create and manage organizational knowledge. • Two types of knowledge – Explicit – Tacit • Two corresponding types of knowledge management systems. – Microsoft. – GovConnect • Intranets, retiring workforces, and institutional memory. Integration • If e-government is to transform public organizations by breaking down barriers between different agencies and make more government transparent, then the systems underlying egovernment must be integrated. • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and off the shelf systems (SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, etc.). • Data warehousing and data marts. • Middleware. • Geographic Information Systems. Human Resource Management and Consultants • Attracting and keeping qualified information technology professionals with appropriate skill sets. • Retraining current IT professionals in the public sector so that they are capable of implementing and managing current applications and web-based services. • Will e-government initiatives allow public employees to focus on non-routine and higher order tasks (automate v. informate)? • When to use consultants and the downward spiral of expertise. • Public accountability: Are consultants less accountable than current IT program managers? Implications • Capital Expenditures: – A recent study by Deloitte Research indicated that 32 percent of governments found obsolete legacy systems to be more of an obstacle then project costs, staff expertise, administrative processes, or legislative mandates. • Is e-government citizen-centric? – As citizen-customers become “web-savvy” will they expect more internet driven initiatives from their government? – Or does e-government distance and disenfranchise citizens from government (answering machine loops… “press 8 now”)? – How relevant is the digital divide to e-government? Implications • Transforming government: – Holistic approach: focus on all levels of e-government from a technological and organizational perspective. – The development and implementation of e-government programs and applications is an opportunity to reexamine an agencies business purpose, or critical mission, to ensure that current new initiatives meet organizational needs. – E-government initiatives and applications should be used as a vehicle for reexamining organizational structure (conducting BPR). ...
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