Chapter 04 - CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science Chapter four...

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CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science Chapter four Quantities of Reactants and Products
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Balanced Chemical Equations reactants products = yields Balanced chemical equation: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (g) (s), (l), (g): physical states (aq) = aqueous solution Stoichiometric coefficients are used to balance the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. Conservation of mass – Antoine Lavoisier Stoichiometric coefficients represent mole ratios.
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Problem: How many moles of H 2 O, is produced from burning 3.3 moles of O 2 with an excess of H 2 ? 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O ( 3.3 mol O 2 ) (2 mol H 2 O) #mol H 2 O = = 6.6 mol H 2 O Mole ratio from balanced chemical equation
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Types of Chemical Reactions
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Synthesis or Combination Reactions – when two or more substances react to form a single product. C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) Nonmetal + nonmetal molecular compound Zn (s) + I 2(s) ZnI 2 (s) Metal + nonmetal ionic compound
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Decomposition Reactions – one substance decomposes to form two or more products. Thermal decomposition – requires heat CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) Metal carbonate metal oxide + carbon dioxide
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Practice Problem 4.1 p. 129 Predict the reaction type and the missing substance for each of these reactions: a) _____ (g) + 2 O 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) b) 4 Fe (s) + 3 ______ (g) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) c) 2 NaN 3 (s) 2 Na (s) + 3 ______ (g)
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Displacement Reactions – one element reacts with a compound to form a new compound and releases a different element. What element is being displaced? By what element?
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Exchange Reactions – exchange of partners between two compounds. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + K 2 CrO 4 (aq) PbCrO 4 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq) – precipitation reaction = a solid or precipitate is produced. – (aq) denotes an aqueous solution, water is the solvent. The ionic compound is dissolved in water corresponding ions.
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Practice Problem 4.2 p. 131 Classify each of the reactions as one of the four general reaction types. a)
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2010 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Summer '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 04 - CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science Chapter four...

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