Lecture 2 notes (2010-1-6)

Lecture 2 notes (2010-1-6) - HIS 216 Lecture 2 1/6/10...

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HIS 216 Lecture 2 1/6/10 Monroe Doctrine (1823) – most relevant and important doctrine of the 19 th century explaining the United States’s justification of their actions up until the Cold War. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815), the Holy Alliance was created. The Holy Alliance countries had an absolutist monarchy. England was opposed to the Holy Alliance because of desired trade relations with Latin America. Latin America at this time was moving towards independence. The United States was supporting the Latin American revolutions and independence. In 1822, President James Monroe (1817–1825) asked Congress for $100,000 for diplomatic representation in different Latin American countries. Congress, of course, approved. Monroe wanted to build United States embassies in Latin American countries. At the same time, John Quincy Adams (Monroe’s Secretary of State) instructed American embassies in Spain to protect independence in Cuba (April 1823). In October 1823, George Canning (British Prime Minister) proposed an alliance with the United States to reject any re-annexation of Latin America to the Spanish empire and would recognize Latin American independence. President Monroe rejected this political alliance, and on December 2, 1823 responded with the proposition of the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine (p. 11) was proposed due to two factors – the successful wars of independence from Spain by her American colonies, and the desire by European powers to re-colonize the Americas. The three main principles are: o The United States will not interfere with colonies, but will defend those that are already independent (status quo). o Principle of two spheres. Europe and the Western hemisphere cannot interfere because they have two different forms of government. o Any threat from European countries in the Western hemisphere is a threat to national security. Interpretations of the Monroe Doctrine – there are two main interpretations o One of the interpretations of the Monroe Doctrine was given by Professor Dexter Perkins . According to him, the Monroe Doctrine was a response to European expansionism, especially from Russia. Russia was expanding into the Pacific Rim. They expanded from Alaska and into the western Oregon Country. Monroe believed that Spain and France were planning to launch a campaign to re- colonize the Latin American territory. The United States also wanted to prevent England from having a powerful influence in Latin America. Perkins final argument was that the Monroe Doctrine was a
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Lecture 2 notes (2010-1-6) - HIS 216 Lecture 2 1/6/10...

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