Lecture 10 notes (2010-1-20)

Lecture 10 notes (2010-1-20) - HIS 216 Lecture 10 1/20/10...

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HIS 216 Lecture 10 1/20/10 Social injustice in Latin America, Communism John F. Kennedy (1961 – 1963) o His main objective was to stop communism in Latin America and preventing a 2 nd communist revolution in the western hemisphere (like in Cuba). To develop this new coherent program, Kennedy sent Arthur Schlesinger to Latin America to contact Latin American political leaders to discuss their problems there and find out what their main needs were for development to reduce poverty and prevent the spread of communism. Schlesinger said that, along with development, Latin America needed to create coherent structures there to develop representative democracies. All of this led to the creation of the Alliance for Progress (March 1961) . (p.226) o This plan proposed a 10-year development program where the United States would put most its money. o Supported a free trade zone amongst all Latin American countries (no more tariffs). o Increase educational interactions so students from Latin America can visit schools in United States, and vice versa. o Land reforms Many Latin Americans saw progress in Kennedy’s foreign policy. However some saw the more aggressive side; Bay of Pigs (April 1961) o Kennedy inherited the problem of Cuba o The CIA started training a group of Cuban exiles from Miami in Guatemala ( Manuel Ydigoras Guatemalan dictator). In April 1961, they start to convince Kennedy to start the operation to overthrow Cuba. o They told Kennedy that the operation would be successful and that the general population would want to do this. They also told him that if they don’t overthrow Castro now, he will remain in power forever. o Believing this, Kennedy approved this but only under one condition: this operation would only be between Cuban rebels and Cuban military; there wouldn’t be any American military there. o This operation was a huge failure. The operation never had air support Didn’t have any popular Cuban support The terrain where they landed was not ideal o The consequences of this failure:
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Fidel Castro was able to consolidate his position of power in Cuba, especially because he received the support of Latin American countries, because everybody knew that the operation was American. He consolidated his alliance with the Soviet Union, and officially became a communist state. Kennedy lost important political capital; he said that he wanted to promote democracy and development, but with this operation, he showed the same actions that Eisenhower did. His intentions are now in question. The rise of the Kennedy Doctrine The United States cannot and will not tolerate another communist country. Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962)
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Lecture 10 notes (2010-1-20) - HIS 216 Lecture 10 1/20/10...

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