Genetics380_Lecture4_2009_SAKAI

Genetics380_Lecture4_2009_SAKAI - Genetics 380 Topic 4...

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Genetics 380 Topic 4: Basic Principles of Heredity Reading: Chapter 3 of textbook. MC1R gene encodes the melanocortin receptor. When activated, increased production of eumelanin and decreased pheomelanin, resulting in black/brown fur in mice. In humans, most redheads are mcr1/mcr1. 10-20% are MCR1/mcr1. Types and frequency of MCR1 mutations vary widely among human populations. Hair color (1) amt. of melanin produced (2) Relative amts. Of eumelanin (brown/ black) compared with pheomelanin (red/yellow). Melanin products against harmful effects of sunlight.
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Outline Mendel’s First Law: Segregation Mendel’s Second Law: Independent Assortment Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square Test: Deviations between observed and expected ratios
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Products of meiosis explain Mendel’s first law: Equal Segregation a A A A a a A A a a A A a a 1 A 2 1 a 2
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Traits in garden pea studied by Mendel Tall Tall
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Traits in garden pea studied by Mendel Parental Strain 1 Dominant Parental Strain 1 Recessive Phenotype of F1 progeny of monohybrid cross ? Seed coat color Yellow Green
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The definition of a gene varies with context, and this definition will change as we discuss different aspects of genetics. For today, we define a gene as an inherited factor that determines a characteristic.
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Single Gene Inheritance Patterns
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Monohybrid cross: between parents that differ in a single characteristic P (parental) generation F 1 (filial 1) generation F 2 (filial 2) generation
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Results of a monogenic genetic cross (involving 2 alleles of the same gene)
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Figure 2-12 part 16 1 2 1 2 Punnett squares backcross
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Figure 2-15 part 15 • Key stages of meiosis and mitosis The Principle of Segregation results from the separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. A a A A a a
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Principle of Segregation each individual diploid organism possesses two alleles for any particular characteristic. These two alleles segregate (separate) when gametes are formed, and one allele goes into each gamete. The concept of Dominance: when two different alleles are present in a genotype, only the trait encoded by one of them-the dominant allele-is observed in the phenotype. Mendel’s monohybrid crosses revealed:
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2010 for the course RUT 146:356 taught by Professor Gol during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Genetics380_Lecture4_2009_SAKAI - Genetics 380 Topic 4...

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