Lecture 6 Neurotransmitter Systems web

Lecture 6 Neurotransmitter Systems web - Synaptic...

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Synaptic transmission Chapter 5 (continued) & Neurotransmitter Systems Chapter 6
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Electrical vs. Chemical transmission Electrical synapses: ions diffuse through gap junction channels (6 connexin SUs connexon) Rapid, ‘fail safe’ but __________ Chemical synapses: release of transmitter which binds to postsynaptic receptor Slow but __________; postsynaptic cells add up signals from many presynaptic inputs F t EPSP & F t IPSP d l t t ti ff t Fast EPSPs & Fast IPSPs + ‘modulatory’ postsynaptic effects Type of response depends on receptor _____ionotropic & metabotropic. e.g. ACh receptors on heart are metabotropic and inhibitory, but ACh receptors on skeletal muscle are ionotropic & excitatory ‘Synaptic Plasticity’: strength of connections varies with ‘_________’ and other factors (state of consciousness, ‘mood’) Exocytosis: number of vesicles released by an AP can vary Receptors: response to neurotransmitter binding can vary
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Neurotransmitter release by Exocytosis 1 Vesicle anchored to presynaptic membrane by proteins 1. Vesicle anchored to presynaptic membrane by _______ proteins 2. Action potential depolarizes terminal causing opening of voltage-gated ________ channels 3 triggers vesicle membrane fusion with presynaptic terminal 3. ________ triggers vesicle membrane fusion with presynaptic terminal membrane, opening of a pore and release of neurotransmitter from vesicle 4. Synaptic vesicle recovered by endocytosis and refilled
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Snare Complex & Vesicle Fusion Fig. 5.14B Many other proteins involved: Exocytosis is tightly regulated and subject to __________. Depending on previous pattern of stimulation, action potentials release variable number of vesicles
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Toxins that affect transmitter release • Botulinum toxin (‘Botox’) from clostridium bacteria Botulinum toxin ( Botox ) from clostridium bacteria – ________ taken up by _____ neurons – Cleaves ______ proteins and thus prevents ACh exocytosis muscle paralysis α -Latrotoxin in black widow spider venom: – Massive _____independent release of synaptic vesicles at neuromuscular junction seizures then paralysis α Latrotoxin indirectly activates synaptotagmin to trigger -Latrotoxin indirectly activates synaptotagmin to trigger vesicle fusion in the absence of _____
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Receptors for chemical messengers Chemical messengers ____ to protein ‘receptors’ specific but interaction induces change in specific but __________ interaction induces change in receptor conformation
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