Lecture 6 Neurotransmitter Systems web

Lecture 6 Neurotransmitter Systems web - Synaptic...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Synaptic transmission Chapter 5 (continued) Neurotransmitter Systems Chapter 6
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Electrical vs. Chemical transmission Electrical synapses: ions diffuse through gap junction channels (6 connexin SUs → connexon) Rapid, ‘fail safe’ but __________ Chemical synapses: release of transmitter which binds to postsynaptic receptor Slow but __________; postsynaptic cells add up signals from many presynaptic inputs e.g. ACh receptors on heart are metabotropic and inhibitory, but ACh receptors on skeletal ‘Synaptic Plasticity’: strength of connections varies with ‘_________’ and other factors (state of consciousness, ‘mood’) Exocytosis: number of vesicles released by an AP can vary Receptors: response to neurotransmitter binding can vary
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Neurotransmitter release by Exocytosis 1. Vesicle anchored to presynaptic membrane by _______ proteins 2. Action potential depolarizes terminal causing opening of voltage-gated ________ channels 3. ________ triggers vesicle membrane fusion with presynaptic terminal membrane, opening of a pore and release of neurotransmitter from vesicle 4. Synaptic vesicle recovered by endocytosis and refilled
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Snare Complex & Vesicle Fusion Fig. 5.14B Many other proteins involved: Exocytosis is tightly regulated and subject to __________. Depending on previous pattern of stimulation, action potentials release variable number of vesicles
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Toxins that affect transmitter release Botulinum toxin (‘Botox’) from clostridium bacteria ________ taken up by _____ neurons Cleaves ______ proteins and thus prevents ACh exocytosis → muscle paralysis α-Latrotoxin in black widow spider venom: Massive _____independent release of synaptic vesicles at neuromuscular junction → seizures then paralysis α-Latrotoxin indirectly activates synaptotagmin to trigger vesicle fusion in the absence of _____
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Receptors for chemical messengers Chemical messengers ____ to protein ‘receptors’
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Lecture 6 Neurotransmitter Systems web - Synaptic...

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