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Chapter 4 part 3 - Chapter 4(part 3 How does the structure...

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Chapter 4 (part 3) How does the structure of a protein affect its biological function?
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Animal Scrapie : s he e p  TME  (trans m is s ible  m ink e nc e phalo pathy): m ink  CWD  (c hro nic  was ting  dis e as e ): m ule de e r, e lk  BSE  (bo vine  s po ng ifo rm  e nc e phalo pathy): c o ws Human CJD : C re utzfe ld-Jac o b Dis e as e   FFI : Fatal fam ilial Ins o m nia  Kuru incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy found in humans. It is caused by a misfolded protein called a prion.
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PrPC PrPSc solubility soluble non soluble structure predominantly alpha-helical predominantly beta-sheeted multimerisatio n state monomeric multimeric (aggregates) infectivity non infectious infectious
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Collagen Majo r pro te in c o m po ne nt o f c o nne c tive  tis s ue - 25-35%  o f the  pro te in c o nte nt in m am m als -  te ndo ns , s tiff ro pe like  fibe rs -  s kin, lo o s e ly wo o ve n fibe rs 3 le ft-hande d he lic al c hains  c o ile d aro und e ac h o the r in a rig ht hande d s upe rc o il. 3AA pe r turn, ris e  0.31 pe r re s idue , 0.94 nm  pitc h pe r turn…m o re e xte nde d that an  α -he lix….tig hte r he lix than an  α -he lix. O fte n fine  G ly-X-Y   X o fte n pro line , Y o fte n 4-hydro xypro line No  intrac hain H-bo nds , o nly inte rm o le c ular H-bo nds S o m e what o f a hybrid be twe e n an  α -he lix and a  β -s trand.
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Collagen Bundle of 3 peptide chains in a coil
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The structure of collagen fibers.
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Stabilized by inter- molecular hydrogen bonds Presence of glycine and proline residues makes chain rigid and incapable of forming an  α- helix. Allows tighter formation of a coil.
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Peptide chain contains modified amino acids 4-hydroxyproline and 5-hydroxylysine 4-hydroxyproline 5-hydroxylysine N H CH C CH 2 O CH 2 HC CH 2 NH 3 + OH Hydroxyl group often connected to a carbohydrate to make a glycoprotein…role of carbohydrate not  known. Hydroxylation occurs after peptide synthesis…need Ascorbic acid (vitamin A) to occur. People deprived of vitamin A develop scurvy.
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