hist120-01_laterdays - LATER DAYS: 6C BC-19C AD Practical...

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Practical Means towards salvation/liberation/release Four legitimate goals in life: Based on real desire 1. Kama [ Kama Sutra ] – physical desire, especially pleasure through love, carnal love between man/woman Kama Sutra written around 400 AD – ends that such pleasure will not lead to happiness 2. Artha [ Arthasastra by Kautilya] – material gain, greed, power, wealth, influence, position, success Based on renunciation 3. Dharma [ Manusmriti “The Laws of Manu”] – duty/law, seeking to fulfill duty towards world society, family Code of Manu – code of conduct (200 AD) 4. Moksha – salvation/liberation/release, renunciation – realization that atman is Brahman Three ways leading to salvation: 1. Kama Marga (Way of Works) o Person active by nature; practical; uses daily actions to attain salvation 2. Jnana Marga (Way of Knowledge) – usually directed towards males o Intellectually inclined individual o Upanishad – source of misery = ignorance; ignorance => learning => salvation Root of evil not caused by moral transgressions, but mental ignorance (no realization that atman is Brahman) o Four stages ( ashramas ) of life: 1. Student – boy learns Vedas, castes 2. Householder – married; aims to raise male children; diets; does not break caste rules 3. Hermit – first grandson born; leaves family and goes to beg for good (leaves behind world); but still allowed relations w/wife 4. Sannyasin – trying to obtain stage of holy man => reach trance (realization of union) alone 3. Bhakti Marga (Way of Devotion) – open to both sexes o People with emotional disposition Triadic Concept of the Gods (trimurti) Three-fold manifestation of Brahma – different aspects of same being 1. Brahma – Sarasvati (consort) Creator, least widely revered But kingly – 4 heads (to read the 4 vedas) riding a white wild goose Sarasvati – goddess of creative arts 2. Shiva – Parvati (consort) Auspicious destroyer, energy of life itself Parvati – mountainess
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hist120-01_laterdays - LATER DAYS: 6C BC-19C AD Practical...

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