Chapter_21 - 11 In this chapter we will introduce a new...

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Unformatted text preview: 11 In this chapter we will introduce a new property of matter known as electric charge (symbol q ). Moreover, we will describe the following properties of charge : Types of electric charge Forces among two charges (Coulombs law) Charge quantization Charge conservation Chapter 21: Electric Charge 22 Introduction In everyday life we are surrounded by devices that depend on physics of electromagnetism the combination of electric and magnetic phenomena. Electromagnetism is at the root of computers, television, radio, telecommunications, etc. Electromagnetism also holds together atoms; produces lightning, auroras, and rainbows. Physics of electromagnetism was first studied by the early Greek philosophers. They have discovered that if a piece of amber is rubbed and then brought near bits of straw, the straw will jump to the amber. We now know that that the attraction between amber and straw is due to an electric force . The Greeks also discovered that if a certain type of stone (a naturally occurring magnet) is brought near bits of iron, the iron will jump to the stone. We now know that that the attraction between magnet and iron is due to a magnetic force . 33 Introduction (contd) The sciences of electricity and magnetism developed separately for centuries until 1820 when Hans Christian Oersted found a connection between them: an electric current in a wire can deflect a magnetic compass needle. Electromagnetism science of electricity and magnetism as a whole developed further through many years. The two of the most important scientists that brought science of electromagnetism to the entirely new level are Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell . 44 Electric Charge In dry weather, you can produce a spark by walking across carpet and then bringing a finger near a metal doorknob. You can also produce multiple sparks when pulling clothes from a dryer. These, and many other similar examples, reveal that we have electric charge in our bodies, clothes, doorknobs, etc. In fact, every object contains vast amount of electric charge. Electric charge is an intrinsic characteristic of fundamental particles making up objects; that is, it is a property that comes automatically with those particles wherever they exist. 55 Electric Charge (contd) The vast amount of charge in an everyday object is usually hidden because the object contains equal amounts of the two kinds of charge: positive charge and negative charge. When an object has equal amount of positive and negative charge, the object is said to be electrically neutral ; that is, it contains no net charge . When an object contains unequal amount of positive and negative charge, the object is said to be electrically charged. 66 Electric Charge (contd) Charged objects interact by exerting forces on one another....
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2010 for the course PHY 340410 taught by Professor Shi,z during the Fall '10 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Chapter_21 - 11 In this chapter we will introduce a new...

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