Chapter_10 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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Chapter 10 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 10 2 Liquids, Solids, and Phase Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes Changes Chapter 10 Chapter 10
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Chapter 10 3 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids Physical properties of substances understood in terms of kinetic molecular theory: Gases are highly compressible, assume shape and volume of container: Gas molecules are far apart and do not interact much with each other. Liquids are almost incompressible, assume the shape but not the volume of container: Liquids molecules are held closer together than gas molecules, but not so rigidly that the molecules cannot slide past each other. Solids are incompressible and have a definite shape and volume: Solid molecules are packed closely together. The molecules are so rigidly packed that they cannot easily slide past each other.
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Chapter 10 4 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids
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Chapter 10 5 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids Converting a gas into a liquid or solid requires the molecules to get closer to each other: cool or compress. Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires the molecules to move further apart: heat or reduce pressure. The forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces.
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Chapter 10 6 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces The covalent bond holding a molecule together is an intramolecular force. The attraction between molecules is an intermolecular force. Intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces (e.g. 16 kJ/mol vs. 431 kJ/mol for HCl). When a substance melts or boils the intermolecular forces are broken (not the covalent bonds). When a substance condenses intermolecular forces are formed.
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Chapter 10 7 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces
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Chapter 10 8 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 01 01 Polar covalent bonds form between atoms of different electronegativity . Polar bonds can be represented as having a positive end and a negative end. This is described as a dipole .
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Chapter 10 9 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 02 02 Dipole Moment ( µ ): The measure of net molecular polarity. µ = Q × r Q = charge on either end of dipole and r = distance between charges Dipole moments are expressed in debyes ( D ) where 1D = 3.336 x 10 –30 coulomb meters (C·m) in SI units.
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Chapter 10 10 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 03 03 Polarity can be illustrated with an electrostatic potential map. These show electron–rich groups as red and electron–poor as blue–green.
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Chapter 10 11 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 04 04
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Chapter 10 12 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces 01 01 The attractive forces between molecules and ions. Determine bulk properties of matter.
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Chapter_10 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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