Chapter_5 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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Chapter 5 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 5 2 Periodicity and Electronic Periodicity and Electronic Structure Structure Chapter 5 Chapter 5
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Chapter 5 3 The Periodic Table The Periodic Table The periodic table is the most important organizing principle in chemistry. Chemical and physical properties of elements in the same group are similar. All chemical and physical properties vary in a periodic manner, hence name Periodic Table .
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Chapter 5 4 The Periodic Table The Periodic Table
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Chapter 5 5 Mendeleev's Periodic Table Mendeleev's Periodic Table In 1869 Mendeleev used atomic mass and similarities in chemical properties to organize the known elements. He predicted the existence of then-unknown elements based upon holes in the table.
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Chapter 5 6 The Periodic Table The Periodic Table
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Chapter 5 7 The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light Modern atomic theory arose out of studies of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation (light) with matter. Electromagnetic radiation consists of an oscillating electric and magnetic fields which can be described as waves. Electromagnetic waves have characteristic wavelengths and frequencies. Example: visible radiation has wavelengths between 400 nm (violet) and 750 nm (red).
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Chapter 5 8 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency ( ν , Greek nu ) of a wave is the number of wave peaks that pass a given point per unit time. Its units are usually reciprocal seconds, s –1 . Wavelength ( λ , Greek Lambda ) of a wave is the distance from one wave peak to the next. Its units are usually meters, m . Amplitude of a wave is the height measured from the center of the wave. The square of the amplitude gives intensity .
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Chapter 5 9 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation
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Chapter 5 10 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Speed of a wave is the wavelength (in meters) multiplied by its frequency in reciprocal seconds. Wavelength x Frequency = Speed λ (m) x ν (s –1 ) = c (m s –1 ) Electromagnetic radiation moves through a vacuum with a speed of 2.99792458 × 10 8 m/s.
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Chapter 5 11 The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light
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Chapter 5 12 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 350 450 550 650 750 Spectra Spectra A spectrum (plural form is spectra ) is a graph of the distribution of amplitude (light intensity) vs. wavelength or frequency. wavelength (nm) intensity (absorbance)
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13 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom Line Spectra Line Spectra Radiation composed of only one wavelength is called monochromatic. Radiation that spans a whole array of different
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Chapter_5 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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