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Chapter_4 - Chemistry 107 General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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Chapter 4 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 4 2 Reactions in Aqueous Reactions in Aqueous Solution Solution Chapter 4 Chapter 4
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Chapter 4 3 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution Precipitation Reactions: A process in which an insoluble solid precipitate drops out of the solution. movie Most precipitation reactions occur when the anions and cations of two ionic compounds change partners. Pb (NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2K I ( aq ) 2KNO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s )
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Chapter 4 4 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution Acid–base Neutralization: A process in which an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus an ionic compound called a salt . The driving force of this reaction is the formation of the stable water molecule. H Cl( aq ) + Na OH ( aq ) NaCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l )
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Chapter 4 5 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution Oxidation–Reduction (Redox) Reaction: A process in which one or more electrons are transferred between reaction partners. The driving force of this reaction is the decrease in electrical potential. Mg( s ) + I 2 ( g ) MgI 2 ( s ) movie
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Chapter 4 6 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity when molecular compounds generally do not? Sucrose (Molecular): C 12 H 22 O 11 ( s ) + H 2 O C 12 H 22 O 11 ( aq ) Sodium Chloride (Ionic): NaCl( s ) + H 2 O Na + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq )
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Chapter 4 7 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes: Substances that dissolve in water to produce ionic solutions. Nonelectrolytes: Substances that do not form ions when they dissolve in water. Dissociation: The process by which a molecular compound splits up to form ions in the solution. HCl( g ) + H 2 O H + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq )
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Chapter 4 8 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Strong Electrolyte: A compound that dissociates to a very large extent when dissolved in water. NaCl( s ) in H 2 O Na + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) Weak Electrolyte: A compound that dissociates only a small amount when dissolved in water. CH 3 CO 2 H ( l ) + H 2 O H 3 O + ( aq ) + CH 3 CO 2 ( aq ) CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) H + ( aq ) + CH 3 CO 2 ( aq )
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Chapter 4 9 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution
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Chapter 4 10 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes movie
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Chapter 4 11 Net Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations Molecular Equation : Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2KI( aq ) 2KNO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) Ionic Equation: Pb 2+ ( aq ) + 2NO 3 ( aq ) + 2K + ( aq ) + 2I ( aq ) 2K + ( aq ) + 2NO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) Net–Ionic Equation: Pb 2+ ( aq ) + 2I ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s )
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Chapter 4 12 Solubility Rules Solubility Rules A compound that contains one of the following cations is probably soluble: Group 1A cation (Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs +) Ammonium ion (NH
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Chapter_4 - Chemistry 107 General Chemistry Chemistry for...

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