Chapter-13-Personality

Chapter-13-Personality - Personality Personality the...

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Unformatted text preview: Personality Personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns that account for our individuality and consistency over time Personality Personality Psychodynamic Theory Trait Perspective • emphasize unconscious influences on personality • set of underlying traits account for the consistencies in behavior from one situation to another • individual’s learning history and ways of thinking • personalities expressed through our efforts to actualize our unique potential as human beings Social­Cognitive Perspective Humanistic Perspective Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud • • sexual instinct (preserves the species) aggressive instinct (explains aggression) Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic psychoanalytical theory ­ personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts • • • • levels of consciousness structure of personality defense mechanisms stages of psychosexual development Levels of Consciousness Levels Levels of Consciousness Levels conscious preconscious unconscious Levels of Consciousness Levels Conscious: the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness Preconscious: the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention Unconscious: lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and holds troubling or unacceptable urges, impulses, memories, and ideas conscious preconscious unconscious The Structure of Personality The The Structure of Personality The Id: exists in the unconscious and contains our basic drives and instinctual impulses Ego: attempts to balance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations Superego: corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscience The Structure of Personality The pleasure principle: a governing principle of the id that is based on demands for instant gratification without regard to social rules or customs reality principle: the governing principle of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable in satisfying basic needs Defense Mechanisms Defense reality­distorting strategies of the ego to prevent awareness of anxiety­evoking or troubling ideas or impulses Stages of Personality Development Stages personality develops through 5 psychosexual stages of development • Determined by how the child seeks physical pleasure from sexually sensitive parts of the body ­ erogenous zones • Fixations: personality traits or behavior patterns characteristics of the particular stage Stages of personality development Stages Stages • • • • • Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Stages of Personality Development Stages Oral Stage (0­1 year) primary erogenous zone is the mouth • oral stimulation provides sexual gratification and needed nourishment • oral fixations too much gratification: smoking, nail biting, alcohol abuse, overeating too little gratification: passivity, clinging dependence, pessimistic outlook Stages of Personality Development Stages Anal Stage (1­3 years) primary erogenous zone is the anal cavity • The child achieves sexual pleasure through the purposeful retention and release of bowel contents • anal fixations anal retentive personality: perfectionism and extreme need for self control, orderliness, cleanliness, and neatness anal­expulsive personality: messiness, lack of self­discipline, and carelessness Stages of Personality Development Stages Phallic Stage (3­6 years) erogenous zone shifts to the phallic region (penis and clitoris) • Oedipus complex ­ development of incestuous desires among boys towards their mothers leading to rivalry with their fathers • Elektra complex ­ development of incestuous desires among girls towards their fathers leading to rivalry with their mothers castration anxiety: fear of removal of the penis as punishment for having unacceptable sexual impulses penis envy: jealousy of boys for having a penis Stages of Personality Development Stages Latency Stage (6­puberty) • sexual impulses remain latent (dormant) during this time Genital Stage (from puberty) • development of mature sexuality and emphasis on procreation Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic Evaluating the Psychodynamic perspective • increased awareness that unconscious drives and impulses may motivate behavior • placed too much importance on sexual and aggressive drives; little emphasis on the role of social relationships in the development of personality • lack of evidence to support many of the principles • based on case studies • difficult to test The Trait Perspective The Traits ­ relatively enduring (stable) personal characteristics • predict how people are likely to behave in different situations Raymond Cattell: Mapping the Personality Personality two basic levels of traits surface traits—surface level, can be gleaned from observations of behavior source traits—deep level of personality, are not apparent in observed behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) • e.g., friendliness, stubbornness, emotionality, and carelessness Raymond Cattell: Mapping the Personality Raymond creative artists airline pilots writers Hans Eysenck: A Simpler Trait Model Hans Introversion­Extraversion Neuroticism • introverts are solitary, reserved, and unsociable. • extraverts are outgoing, friendly, and people­ oriented • high: tense, anxious, worrisome, restless, and ,moody • low: relaxed, calm, stable, even­tempered • high: cold, antisocial, hostile, insensitive • low: warm, sensitive, concerned about others Psychoticism Eysenck Personality Inventory Hans Eysenck: A Simpler Trait Model Hans Four basic personality types: extraverted­neurotic, extraverted­stable, introverted­stable, introverted­neurotic The Five-Factor Model of Personality: The “Big Five” The most widely adopted model of personality integrates factors identified by Cattell, Eysenck, and others • • • • • Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Consciousness The Big Five The The Five-Factor Model of Personality: The “Big Five” The most widely adopted model of personality integrates factors identified by Cattell, Eysenck, and others The Big Five The Extraversion Neuroticism Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness The Social Cognitive Perspective The Albert Bandura reciprocal determinism—cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors influence each other e.g., a motorist is cut off by another motorist—road rage The Social Cognitive Perspective The role of observational learning: learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others in social contexts outcome expectancies: predictions of the outcomes of behavior efficacy expectations: predictions about your personal ability to perform behaviors you set to accomplish The Social Cognitive Perspective The Walter Mischel situation variables: environmental factors (e.g., rewards and punishments) person variables: internal person factors • • competencies: the knowledge and skills we posses encoding strategies: personal perceptions of events • self­regulatory systems and plans: ability to plan courses of actions to achieve our goals and to reward ourselves for accomplishing them Humanistic Perspective Humanistic conscious choice and personal freedom are central features of what it means to be a human being Carl Rogers • people strive toward self actualization • self­theory: focuses on the importance of the self • self as the executive part of one’s personality • the sense of being “I” or “me” Humanistic Perspective Humanistic unconditional positive regard: acceptance of a person’s basic worth regardless of whether their behavior pleases or suits us conditional positive regard: valuing a person only when the person’s behavior meets certain expectations or standards Personality Tests Personality Phrenology: the view that one can judge a person’s character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head Objective Personality Scales Objective Answer a series of question about self Assumes that you can accurately report There are no right or wrong answers From responses, develop a picture of you called a ‘personality profile’ • ‘I am easily embarrassed’ T or F • ‘I like to go to parties’ T or F Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Inventory Most widely used personality instrument Clinical & Employment settings Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem Long test ‑ 567 questions • e.g., extreme suspiciousness • Now the MMPI ­ 2 Characteristics of the MMPI‑2 Characteristics Has several different scales (multiphasic) Scales thought to measure different kinds of psychological disorders Scale scores indicate how you compare with others Overall assessment is interpretive • From inspecting profile of different scales • e.g., depression MMPI Score Profiles MMPI Jane—21 yr. old (suicide attempt) Bill—34 yr. old (schizophrenia) Pete—25 yr. old (well­adjusted) MMPI Score Profiles MMPI “I usually feel that life is worthwhile and interesting” “Evil people are trying to influence my mind” “I seem to hear things that other people can’t hear” • Schizophrenia • Paranoia • Depression Projective Tests Projective Set of unstructured or ambiguous stimuli Based on psychodynamic theory • People transfer or “project” their unconscious needs, drives, and motives onto their responses to unstructured or vague stimuli Rorschach Test Rorschach Sample Rorschach Card Thematic Apperception Test Thematic Person is asked to tell a story about the scene Based on Murray’s personality theory • people project their own psychological needs and conflicts into the events they describe ...
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