دانش اطلØ

&Oslash&mac - Î Ÿb€À#¾³Zy•ÈY‚³Yu ¾¬‡Y ¶p ‡  ±Yz¿Y¾°¬—¥yYv¯¹aZ—ȏY|§z¯

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Î Ÿb€À#¾³Zy•ÈY‚³Yu ¾¬‡Y ¶p ‡  ±Yz¿Y¾°¬—¥yYv¯¹aZ—ȏY|§z¯ ¾°¬—¥yYv¯|§z¯¾´Ÿ¶¿z„³  ÎÐÒÎz¸¯ž©¹YµyZ°ƒž©¹Yµy¹u º§yº]º·¶dƒº³  ¾„³Yu²À€o  zkZ¸¯|¿¹z   ¶¯v¤¯ ¾³Zy •ÈY ¾WZ¨¿z¯Y ²°l³Y ¶] Yy uºs ­Z³ Zc bY µvƒ ±M z]  ºÀZd³Z¯º§u ¾WZ¨¿z¯Y ½ºdÀd€³Y ±º´§Y ± ¾³Zy •ÈY ¶§ ®À·u nÀ‹ºc uºs ±Zd¹u ¹ ±YyZ¨°· ½Yz] Zc ®À´¨À¯ ‚ƒº§ Z¯ {Y ½yZÀ€] u{Z ©v] ¶³º.# ±ºÀZdZ¯º§u ¹ ½yYv]Zd§ ‚³Yu Z] ±M Z^cyY µuº] ¶# ¾°¬— ¶dƒy ²¿Y ±Yz.„·¹& yZ§ ¹ b€À# ³ bY  bY ½Y ¶ À“¹ yZ§ ²¿Y ¶§ v´³YvÀ¯ v´d€· ¶´À¯{ ²¿Y yu ¾pÀ‹ºc ²À´# ±uYu ©Z^³v] ¶§ Z¯ {Y ¶du ±M ¾tZ®À¤d€¯ ½Z· ½ºk ¹ }z yZ„Ÿ bpc ¶³ ¹ zZs ™YzŸ Z] Zc ­vƒ ±M z] ²¿z°c ±Yº´˜] ¦´¿Y žyYºƒu Ž¤Ÿ ­Y ¶dŸZÀ³ ¾˜£ ¹ ²À˜¯ ¾tZ ®¿º. vÀ·v] µ{ZkY ©¹Y ²À°· {Y ¾«¹  ´§ YvÀ aÇYº ²¿Y ½Yz] ] ® ¶] ¹ v´§ ²ƒ¹y Yy Z¯ uºs ²·w ®§ bu ¶§ u{Z ®·YzŸ Yy ¾hp] ±º³Z§ ¶«Z¤¯ ²¿Y ¶§ bY ±M ­vÀ¯Y u{ZzcZ³Yºc®À´¨À¯¶§½yZ§nÀ‹ºc   ž¿z˜c  2 Annual Review of       ¿z„³ yu bY Z´ƒM Z¯ ½Yz] ¶§ bY ¾cv¯  ³Zy •ÈY mȐ‡Y ¶ ¾ ¹ ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu ½Y ¶Ÿzo ½Z· ¶^´k ±Yº´— bpc yº¬¿Zc } z]¹y Information Science a Z¯Yv´d€·¾§zd„¯aZ¨³½YyYuž¿z˜c¶²¿Y Yµuy¹M¾³Zy•ÈY‚³Yu½Yz]ž¿z˜c¶½%º«º´¨c b bv]ž¿z˜c ²¿Y \À§zc {Y uYu ®À·Yºs ¶§ ¾ ¿z˜c ³Y µuz§ ½zd„À] vÀ§Zc …Zs ½Y ¶d¨³ ¶] ¦¿ z· ¶ v bYµv¯M  z] ®§Zo ½Z·¹zÀ³aZ—ȏY uz]yZ§ ¹ bÀ À§ µyZ]yu ¶§ ¾°¬— ½Y ¶dƒy {Y bY ayZ^— ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu v´¨À¯¢À¤pc[º¬¯µuZ dY¹¾zdu½Yz]aZ—ȏY½{ZµuZ¯M½Z·yY|]Y¶°·¹aZ—ȏY±Z¿zk  µzÀsw¾·u ±Z¯{Z½y¹Muz- vÀ«ºc ¶] ¶§  Y ‚³Yu {Y ¾„t] ±M ¶] ²dsYuz ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu yZ§ b ¶WYyY µyZ]yu ²À´$°· ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu  º„À¯ º]z¯ aZ—ȏY uz]yZ§ ª¿v^c ©Z¤d³Y ¶°kzc ¾]Z¿{Z] u ½{ZµuZ¯M½Z·µºÀƒ ¹ aZ—ȏY ª¯Z§ ©Z¤d³Y ½Yz] Z· \«Z£ uz]yZ§ ¹ ¾—º´ˆ¯ ¹ ¾˜À^ ¹y ¶] aZ—ȏY ‚·¹& ¶] ±M ½|¿y ¶¯Z³z] ½Z· ¹y ¹ z.]Z€o ½Z· ²ÀƒZ¯ v´³Z¯ ±M ½Z  ²Ÿ ¹ ½Z·yY|]Y ¹ aZ—ȏY · u{YuzÀ¯  1 - Harold Borko by Arthur W. Ebias (Washington, D.C.: The American Society for Information Science, 1971), P. 1-3 2 - Documentation ²Ÿ ¾Z´ƒ ±Z]{ ¢´¯ aZÀ‹Z¿y ªh¯ z.¿u ½Z· ¶dƒy ¶] ¶§ ¾^À§zc bY ¾°¬— ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu ¶dƒy z¿Z ¹ b¿z¿v¯½yYv]Zd§ ‚³YuaZZ^cyY¦ÀŸYz- z´· ¹ aZÀ¬°— yu ¢À¤pcz.]Z€o ½Z· ²ÀƒZ¯ uyYu¾.d€]|À³¶]Z„¯½Z·  ½YyYu ®· ¹ uzÀ.À¯ ¶˜«Z¯ ¶] ±M uz]yZ§ {Y z”³ z‡ Yy •º‹º¯ ¶§ bY ½z”³ ¶^´k ½YyYu ®· ®¬— ²¿Y v´¨À¯uZl¿YYyaǺˆp¯¹aZ¯vs¶§¾¬°—¶^´k  ž¿z˜c ¹ bY ½v˜] v´# ¹ Š Z› •º‹º¯ uºs ¶§ bY ¹y ±M {Y vzÀ¯ z”´] µvÀ$À ž¿z˜c ²¿Y z-Y ¯ vƒZ]–³Z¯¹–¯Zkv¿Z]z¿|-Z³  yZ§ b´ \€o z] ²¨À« b€À³ Z¸³Z¯{Z {Y ¦À$À· ¾‡ZˆdsY yZ§ ¾³Zy •ÈY ‚³Yu z‹Zo ©Zo yu v¿Z] Z´°‹  Y µuº] ¾³Zy •ÈY ¹ ±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u µyZ]yu ¶˜«Z¯ ±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u ¾WZ¨¿z¯Y ½ºdÀd€³Y b  WZ· ²Ÿ ¹ Z· ¾„¯ Žs ¹ bY ¾³Zy •ÈY ®— ¾¬°— ½Z· ¶^´k ±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u ¹ ½yYv]Zd§ ¶§ b€³Yu ¾ ¬ ¹ vƒZ] ¾³Zy •ÈY ®¬— ½z”³ ª‡Y z] ¾´^¯ ¾d€¿Z] v³yYu uºs yZ§ yu b€À«Zd³Z¯º§u ¹ ±YyYv]Zd§ ¶§ yYz£ ¶˜«Z¯ uyº¯ Yy ±YyZ§yv³Y bu µvƒ µuº¯{M ½Z· ²Ÿ ¾d€¿Z] ¾³Zy •ÈY ®¬— ±Yz”³ \oZ‡ È]Z¤d¯ v´·u   ¾³Zy•ÈY¶]{ZÀ³  ±º-Z³º-Z·uZ¸³bŸz„À\^¶§bY¾cZ—ȏY¶—º°l¯¶À¸c¾°¬—¶dƒy¦¿±Yº´˜]¾³Zy•ÈYv·  ¬°k {Y v³Y ¶du v´# z] Z·uZ¸³ ²¿Y ´d€· ‚³Yu ©Z¤d³Y ¹ ½y¹Muz- ž£¹ ¶§ uº„À¯ ¾WZ· ¹y ¹ ¶ v ½Yz] ¶³Zt]Zd§ bY µv¯M uz- ª€³ v´# ©º yu ¶§ ¾„³Yu ®À¬˜c ½Yz] ¶yv¯ ‚³Yu b^g ½Yz] [Zd§  zsM [ºd¨¯ ©Z¤d³Y ½Yz] ¶¬l¯ ‚³Yu ±uy¹M yu ‚¿Z°´] ½Yz] ±º¿|¿º¬c ¹ Z°´À ‚³Yu yZ„d³Y ¹ µzÀsw aZ—ȏY¾·Z ƒ©Z¤d³Y½Yz]~³Yz ´§­Zl³Yz¹²À˜¯¶´À¯{yu¾´Ÿ½Z·bŸz„À  ¾Z^cyY ½Z·{ZÀ³ ±uy¹Mz] ½Yz] ¾«¹ v´·vÀ¯ ¹ µuYu ­Zl³Y v³Y ¶dƒYu µv¸— z] ¶§ YzÀ°¸¯ ¶ À“¹ Z·uZ¸³ ²¿Y {Yv´cyZ^—v´¨À¯¦°§Z¸³M¾WZyZ³¶]¶§¾¬¯Yº—{Y¾Œ˜]v´d€À³¾ŸZ§{¹z¯Y¶˜¯Zk  ¶dƒx- ‚³Yu ¹ uº„À¯ ¶‹z— º³ ‚³Yu ±M Z] ¶§ ¾d—z ¹ ½%º«º´¨c ¹ ­º¬— |À.³Y b. ƒ vƒy Î uuz.À¯qº€´¯¹¶´¸§  ayZ¸¯ ±uz§ º³ ½Yz] v³yº^l¯ ¾°v£ ±ÈÀˆpd«Y ™yZŸ ¶¨¿yº]¾´Ÿ ‚³Yu ±vƒ ¶´¸§ b—z Ï ¿ v³uz-z]¶yv°]uºs½Z·   ¾´Ÿ¹¾°¬—aÈl¯uºk¹¹yZ§yv³Ybu±Yv´°„³Yu¾³Y¹YzŸ Ð yZÀ€] ª¨„¯ ¾°¬— ž¬dt¯ ½Z· ¶dƒy ²À] Yy aZ—ȏY ¶«uZ^¯ ¹ ®¸ c ¹ ®À¸ c ¶§ †ˆtc ‚¿Y|ŸY Ñ v´´¨À¯  v´¨À¯zcv¿vƒ¹zc¾³MYy•ÈY\€§¶]iZÀdoY¶§±Muz]yZ§¹‚·¹&²À]¥v³Y¾³Z¯{¶¬‡ZŸ Ò   ³Y µvƒ µuYu †Àt„c †£Z³ aZ—ȏY ¶«uZ^¯ ½Yz] uºkº¯ ½Z· ¹y­z^¯ ½Z·{ZÀ³ ¶³º- ²¿Y ¶lÀd³ yu v Zc ºƒ yZ§ ²¿Y ž£¹ yZÀ€] ‚ƒº§ bY ±M ž£¹ ©Zo ¹ bY µuz¨³ vƒy ­º¬— z¿Z ­Z.°· ¾³Zy •ÈY u µYy yu +y|] ¾˜³Z¯ v´]ZÀ³ uº^¸] aZ—ȏY ¶«uZ^¯ ¹ Z^c Y ½Z· µºÀƒ z-Y uz- ±Yz^k ¾-v³Z¯ \¤— ²¿Y y u vƒv·YºsbŸz„À±Y|À¯±v¯M²ÀWZ¹½yZ§µyZ]¹u\^Z^cyY­v—¹uº„À¯uZl¿Y­º¬—z¿Z  ¾³Zy•ÈY²°l³YbYn‹Y¹¾°¬—¶dƒy²¿Yz]µ{¹z¯YvÀ§Zcª¿Çu¹¾³Zy•ÈYbÀ°·Y\Àczc²¿v] aȨ„¯Z]¹®À´§,´·M®·Yyuºs‚ƒº§zd„À]¶#z·v¿Z]¶§bYb¤À¤o ¿Y}º€p¯±ZÀ]Z¨¿z¯Y ² ®ÀWZ°³­z³¶l´¹bu½Yµ{Zc   ¾³Zy•ÈYyu‚·¹&¹uz]yZ§  ±Z³M ¬°—¶^´k®·¹uyYu¢¬¯½z”³½Y¶^´k®·¾³Zy•ÈY®¿vƒy¹MuZ¿uºsž¿z˜cyu¶¨³Z´$°· ¾ vÀ§Zc ¶^´k ¹u ²¿Y {Y ¾¨¿ z] uºs ¢Wȗ ¹ aÈÀˆpc \€o z] vyZ§ yv³Y bu ¾°¬— ¶dƒy ²¿Y yu ¶§ ³ z·¶]¶§bYn‹Y¹¹ª°—ª·Y½Yz]®·¹b€·Zkz”³ª·Y½Yz]®·µu¹vp¯²¿Yyu ³yYx.À¯½zd„À] v yZ§ ¶lÀd³ {Y ¦¿ z·  ¹ v³Y ¶dŸZ¿ v³ºÀ z.¿v¨À] ¾´d€€-Z³ ½ºp´] ª°— ¹ ¶¿z”³ b€· {ZÀ³ ¶du ¹u v´¨À¯µuZ dY½z.¿u  µZ.³  ·u ¶¯YuY Yy uºs aZ¤À¤pc v³YºdÀ¯ ±M yu ¶§ uyYu yZÀdsY yu ¾˜À¹ ¹z°¬£ ¾³Zy •ÈY µv´·¹& v ½yZk ½Z· ¾³º-z-u ¹ Z¸„·¹& ÎÑ µyZ°ƒ  µyZ°ƒ ²¿zsM  ¯Z³ µ%Y¹ ¹ bz¸Ÿ LZ´hdZ]  ÒÓÓ ¶] ½v´c ¶ ¶] ¶dƒy Ö ¶] yY|- ÓÒÒ ·vÀ¯ ±Z„³ Yy ¶˜«Z¯ bu yu mz y¹M ­Zz b˜¹ ºÀZd³Z¯º§u yu v ± v³Yµvƒ®À€¤cz¿{mzƒ   aZ—ȏY½Z·µuZ dY¹½Z·{ZÀ³ Î  aZ¤À¤pc¹aYyZ„d³YZ^cyY½Z·º.«Yv·Yºƒ¶˜«Z¯±Z-v´´§µuZ dY½yZdŸy¶˜«Z¯  ¥yYv¯uZl¿Y¹½yYuz]bƒº³¹y Ï  ½yZdYz¿¹¹²dƒº³µzÀsw¹b^g­zŸ¹z¨À¯z.]Z€o²ÀƒZ¯¦°¨]\À§zc  ªÀ¬pc Ð ±Z]{  ¾WZ´˜¯¾¬À¬pc¾³Y¹y¾Z´„³Z]{ ²d¯ ¾˜À^±Z]{½{ZµuZ¯M¾Z´ƒµ%Y¹½Y¶^Zp¯¾Z´ƒ±Z]{ ¶°kzc Ñ  ¶°kzc¾¨°§½Z·yY|]Y¾´ÀƒZ¯¶°kzc  ±Z-%Y¹¶˜«Z¯½{Z¶¿Z°³¹}Z^d£Y½v´]¶¤^¾€¿º³µvÀ¨# Ò  ®d€Àmz Ó  aZ—ȏYµv¿|-z]yZ„d³Y¶³Zt]Zd§¾´ÀƒZ¯aZÀ¬°—aZ—ȏY¾]Z¿{Z]¾¤À^c¶˜«Z¯  ¾]ZÀƒ{yY¹ªÀ¬pc Ô  ¶°kzcbÀ À§ª°—{z‚l´¹±º¯{M½Z·¹y½|¿y\«Z£½{Z¶¿Z°³bÀ À§¾¤À^c¶˜«Z¯  bsZ´ƒ Õ º.«Y  ªÀ¬pcz¿ºˆc½{ZµuZ¯M yZd  µv´´§yZ-{Z½Z·µZ.du Ö •ÈY ½Z· ‚·¹& ¶¨³M ­È§ †t¬¯ u ±Z¯{Z uºs ½Z¸·Z.du¶Z€¯ ªoZ·yZ uºs¾—º´ˆ¯ º· µ « § [º¬¯ ¾]Z¿{Z] ¹ µzÀsw ½Yz] Yz³M ²dsZ µuZ¯M ¹ •ÈY ©Z¤d³Y ¹ µuZ dY •ÈY yZdŸy ¹ …Yºs ¾³Zy v´¨À¯¾yz]  ª°— ¹ ¶¿z”³ ¹ uz] Z§ ¹ ‚·¹& º„À°³ ®· ­Zl³Y b¤À¤o yu ¹ uºƒ ­Zl³Y LÈs yu v¿Z^³ ½z”³ aZ˜«Z¯ y u Yy zgº¯ ¾«¹ ¦#º§ ¾dÀ¬£Y ±Z-v´·¹&¾°¬— ½Z· ¶dƒy z¿Z v´³Z¯ Z¯Y v³yYx.À¯ zÀgZc z.¿v¨¿ z] ¶dºÀ ²dsYuz ±ZƒyZ§ ¹ Y ¾¬°— ½Z· ¶^´k ¶] º˜¯ ±Z„ƒº§ ¶dƒy ²¿Y yu uYzŸY zd„À] v´·vÀ¯ ªÀ¨„c b yZ¨]YyµZ.duZ·¾WZyZ³¶°·®›z]v³yYu¶ À“ ±Z³M YaZ—ȏY©Z¤d³Y¶]º]z¯ªWZ€¯¹aZÀ¬°—¶] ¹ b ¹ v³ºƒ –¬¯ uº„À¯ µuy¹z ¶§ µ{Zc ½Z· ²Ÿ {Y v¿Z] |À³ ¹ v³{Yuz †WZ¤³ –Ÿy ¶] ª°— µ{ºo yu ¹ u{Yv³Y bƒYuzZt]v¿Z]Z¯Y ´´§¾]Z¿{yYYyZ¸³Mª°—¶‡z—yu¹v³v´]±ZƒyZ¨]vÀyaZ^gY¶]Z¸³M¾dyu¾d£¹ v ¶] ~§ z· ¶§ v¿u v¿Z] ¾¸d´¯ yYv³ uºk¹ ²Ÿ ¹ ‚·¹& ²À] ¾¤À£u |¿Z°c ¾³Zy •ÈY yu …ºˆt] ¶§ u v´„¿v³ZÀ¯ªWZ€¯{Y¶—º°l¯¦¿¶]uYzŸY¶°·bY®¬€¯¶$³M¾«¹v´¨À¯vÀ§Zc¶^´k­Yv§  ¶§ bY bÀ°·Y |¿Zo ¶d¨³ ²¿Z] ¶kºc ²¿Yz]Z´] vƒZ] ¶dƒYu ¾·Z.„³Yu ¾.d€]Y¹ ¾—º³ v¿Z] ¾°¬— ¶dƒy z·  Y µvƒ ¶dsZ´ƒ bÀ°z] ¾°¬— ¶dƒy ¦¿ ±Yº´˜] Z¸·Z.„³Yu {Y ½yZÀ€] uYv˜c yu {¹z¯Y ¾³Zy •ÈY b aZ³Z¨¯Y µuY{ zd„À] a¹Z c ²¿Y Z¯Y v´¨À¯ ¡zŸ ž¬dt¯ ½Z· µZ.„³Yu yu uº„À¯ ~¿yvc ¶§ ¾WZ· •º‹º¯ [º¬¯ yZÀ€]  Y ½yZ§ ¾³º- ¶³º- ²¿Y ºƒ ~¿yvc v¿Z] ¶$³M µyZ]yu µvÀ¤— ÈdsY Zc bY ½Y ¶Ÿzo b u uyYv³ZdY ayºˆ] ½voY¹ ¾yu ¶¯Z³z] ¶§ bY u¹{ ¹ bY ±Yºk yZÀ€] {º´· ¢À¤pc ¶´À¯{ ²¿Y Yz¿{ {Y ±Z¿ºl„³Yu ¶¨³Z´$°· ¹ v´¨À¯ ¢¿º„c Yy ¾yz] ¹ bŸz„À Z· ¶¯Z³z] •º´c ©Zo ²À°· yu uºƒ uZ¸´„À bƒYx-v´·Yºs¾yu¶¯Z³z]z]½Yµv´´§ª¨ƒ¦¿¹µv´·uvƒyzÀgZcv³º„À¯™yZŸªÀˆpc  ¶‡Ès v³vƒ ¾³Zy •ÈY yu ¶«Z¤¯ ²¿Y ²dƒº³ \^ ¶§ ¾WZ· rZ ¹ aÇYº ¶] ®¬¿Z¯ z.¿u yZ] ¦¿ Zk ²¿Y yu aÇYº ²¿v] rZ ²¿zsM ¶§ v³Y µv„³ µuYu vˆ£ ²¿Z] aZpÀ‹ºc ²¿Y ¶§ ®´§ ¶ŸZ‹Y v¿Z] |À³ ¹ ®´§ µyZƒY bsYuzzÀ€ c¹fp]¶]±Z„ŸYzYyuzd„À]v¿Z]¶§v³y¹NÀ¯®·YzŸ¾WZ·±º³Z§ZŸz‡¶¨¬]v´ƒZ]  Ÿ  b€À#¾³Zy•ÈY z] ®§Zo ½Z·¹zÀ³aZ—ȏY yZdŸy ¹ …Yºs ¶§ z.¿u ¾°¬— ¶dƒy v´# {Y \§z¯ bY ¾°¬— ¾³Zy •ÈY µzÀsw½Yz]Yy¾´ÀƒZ¯¶#¾du¶#aZ—ȏY½{ZµuZ¯M…Zs½Z·²Ÿ¹aZ—ȏY{YµuZ dY¹±Z¿zk v´¨À¯¾yz][º¬¯yZ„d³Y¹¾]Z¿{Z]¹  Ÿ  b€À#±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u ¹¾]Z¿{Z]µzÀswªÀˆpc±ºÀZd³Z¯º§uyZ§ Y¾³Zy•ÈY½uz]yZ§½Z· ‚t] {Y ¾¨¿ ±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u b ±Z˜kYz¯ aZkZÀdoY ¹ ¶—º°l¯ bÀ·Z¯ b¬˜] Y ¶¬l¯ ¹ yY|- ayºˆ] µvƒ b^g vÀ ¯ aZ—ȏY yZ„d³Y b ²dsYuz½Z·²Ÿ±Yº´˜]®¬ÀŸ¹z¨À¯¾ŸYz-¹zyZ·µuYu½{ZµuZ¯MaY|À¸lc{Yµu dYz]±ºÀZd³Z¯º§u Z v´¨À¯yZÀ€]vÀ§ZcaZ—ȏY¶]  Ÿ  v´¨À¯¶#¾³Zy•ÈY®«Z— ¾´˜¯²¿v] ´§yZ§uz]yZ§†ˆtd¯Z¿®¬˜¯µv´·¹&±Yº´˜]¶dƒy²¿YyubY²¨°¯¾³Zy•ÈY®«Z— v }yu ¾³Zy •ÈY Z¿ u{ bu ‚·¹& ¶] aZ—ȏY ¶] ²dsYuz µ{Zc ½Z· ²Ÿ y¹z ½Yz] bY ²¨°¯ ¶§ uz§ª¿v˜cv¿zŸMYyaZ—ȏY¶]²dsYuz½Z·®d€ÀZ¿b€]yZ¨]Yy¾³Zy•ÈY½Z·²Ÿ¹¶¿z”³Z¿uYu vÀ„t]uº^¸]Z¿  uyYu±uz.]•Z°dkYyu¾°¸¯¶ À“¹¾³Zy•ÈY®«Z—¹bY½y¹z‹¹®¸¯½Y¶dƒy¾³Zy•ÈY   ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/04/2010 for the course ENGINEERS 22453175 taught by Professor Heydari during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online