o chem summary

o chem summary - Important Concepts Carbonyl Group...

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CHAPTER 17 Aldehydes and Ketones: he Carbonyl Group The Carbonyl Group Important Concepts ± Carbonyl Group – Functional group of the aldehydes and ketones ± Polarized - The C=O bond is polarized, the oxygen carries a partial negative charge and the carbon carries a partial positive charge. Important Concepts ± C=O Bond Undergoes Ionic Additions – Acids and bases are catalysts for these processes. ± ucleophiles add to C Nucleophiles add to C ± Electrophiles add to O ± Aldehydes More Reactive than Ketones – ± Reactivity increases with increasing electrophilic haracter of the carbonyl carbon character of the carbonyl carbon CHAPTER 18 nols Enolates and the Aldol Enols, Enolates and the Aldol Condensation: - nsaturated Aldehydes and α , β Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
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Important Concepts ± α Hydrogens – next to a carbonyl group are acidic: ± Carbonyl group is electron-withdrawing ± esulting enolate ion is resonance- tabilized Resulting enolate ion is resonance stabilized ± Electrophilic Addition – on enolates can occur at both the α carbon and the oxygen ± Haloalkanes prefer the α carbon rotonation of the oxygen leads to enols ± Protonation of the oxygen leads to enols ± Enol-Keto Conversion – Aldehydes and ketones y are in equilibrium with their tautomeric enol forms. The equilibrium is catalyzed by acid or base. Important Concepts ± α Halogenation – of carbonyl compounds may be acid- or base-catalyzed. ± Acid: addition at the double bond – subsequent q renewed enolization is slowed down by the halogen ± Base: addition at the carbon – subsequent renewed nolization is speeded up by the halogen enolization is speeded up by the halogen ± Aldol Condensation – Nucleophilic, reversible addition of an enolate at the carbonyl carbon of an aldehyde or ketone ± Michael Addition – Addition of an enolate at the β carbon of an α , β -unsaturated carbonyl compound Important Concepts ± α , β -Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones – ± Show normal chemistry at each individual double bond ± Conjugated system may react as a whole: ± Acid-and base-catalyzed 1,4-additions HAPTER 19 CHAPTER 19 Carboxylic Acids
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Important Concepts Substitution by addition-elimination - nucleophilic addition at the C=O of carboxylic cids and their derivatives acids and their derivatives
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o chem summary - Important Concepts Carbonyl Group...

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