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Chapter 8 - Memory Memory Chapter 8 Part 1 Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory Memory Chapter 8: Part 1 Learning Objectives Learning • Be able to define memory • Be able to differentiate working memory and long term Be memory memory • Be able to differentiate automatic and effortful processing • Be able to describe visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding • Understand how mnemonic devices can be used to Understand enhance memory enhance • Understand the neural process by which we encode new Understand memories memories • Understand how stress and emotion can influence the Understand formation of new memories formation • Florida • Kartofel • Adam always asks Alice about aardvarks • John frequently questions Susan regarding John ant eaters ant • Greg ate the sandwich • Ate sandwich Greg the Memory Memory • Persistence of learning over time through Persistence encoding, storage, & retrieval of info encoding, Information Processing Model Information • Encoding • putting info into memory • Storage • retaining it over time • Retrieval • bringing it back out What we used to think What • Sensory memory • Few seconds • Short-term memory • ~20 seconds • Long-term memory • Years Why don’t we think that anymore? anymore? • Too rigid • Some things go straight to long term memory • New, more dynamic concept of short term New, memory – Working Memory memory Information Processing Model Information • Working memory • Newer conceptualization Newer of short-term memory of • Keep new info active in Keep consciousness & relate it to older info to Encoding: Getting info in Encoding: • Automatic • • • • Space Time Frequency Well-learned information • Effortful • Rehearsed • Overlearning Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Automatic Automatic Effortful Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Automatic Automatic Effortful Effortful Processing Overlearning Overlearning What do we encode? What • Visual Encoding • Acoustic Encoding • Semantic encoding Visual Encoding Visual • • • • • • Florida Flurida Floreda Kartofen Cartofel Kartofel Acoustic Encoding Acoustic • Adam always asks Alice about aardvarks • John frequently questions Susan regarding John ant eaters ant Semantic Encoding Semantic • Greg ate the sandwich • Ate sandwich Greg the Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic • Chunking • Remember: 149217762009 • OK, what was it? • 149217762009 • Maybe this would be easier? • 1492 1776 2009 • This time? • 1492 1776 2009 Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic • ROYGBIV • Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet • Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally • Parentheses Exponents Multiplication Division Parentheses Addition Subtraction Addition • Kings Play Chess On Flat Glass Surfaces • Kingdom Phylum Order Family Genus Species Storage: Retaining info Storage: Sensory memory • Iconic • Echoic K Z R Q B T S G N Storage: Retaining info Storage: • Working Memory • Capacity: 7 +/- 2 pieces of information • e.g. phone numbers • Quickly lost without rehearsal Quickly • 20 seconds or less • With rehearsal, info may be stored in With long-term memory long-term Storage: Retaining info Storage: • Chunking: Short-term Chunking: memory strategy memory • 1,4,9,2 = 1492 Storage: Retaining info Storage: • Long-term memory • Essentially limitless • e.g. Rajan Mahadevan • Memorized Pi to over Memorized 30,000 places 30,000 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097 49445923078164062862089986280348253421170679821480865132 82306647093844609550582231725359408128481117450284102701 93852110555964462294895493038196442881097566593344612847 56482337867831652712019091456485669234603486104543266482 13393607260249141273724587006606315588174881520920962829 25409171536436789259036001133053054882046652138414695194 15116094330572703657595919530921861173819326117931051185 48074462379962749567351885752724891227938183011949129833 67336244065664308602139494639522473719070217986094370277 05392171762931767523846748184676694051320005681271452635 60827785771342757789609173637178721468440901224953430146 54958537105079227968925892354201995611212902196086403441 81598136297747713099605187072113499999983729780499510597 31732816096318595024459455346908302642522308253344685035 26193118817101000313783875288658753320838142061717766914 73035982534904287554687311595628638823537875937519577818 577805321712268066130019278766111959092164201989 Storage: Retaining info Storage: • Long-term potentiation (LTP) • When you learn something new, serotonin is released into certain When serotonin synapses synapses • Synapses become better at sending signals when stimuli are Synapses encountered again encountered • Knowledge = ease of activation Storage: Retaining info Storage: • Mutated mice that lack Mutated enzyme for LTP can’t solve mazes solve • Drugs that enhance LTP = Drugs reduced mistakes by half reduced Stress, Emotion and Memory Stress, • Stronger emotional events make for Stronger stronger memories stronger • Stress = seared “flashbulb” memory • But . . . • Prolonged stress can corrode memories and interfere wi • “Flashbulb” memories vivid, but not Flashbulb” always accurate always Review Review • Memory is retention of information over Memory time through storage and retrieval time • Working memory is relatively short term Working and involves conscious awareness; long term memory is theoretically unlimited and stores many things without our being consciously aware of them consciously Review Review • Automatic processing occurs for things like Automatic space and time, and for well learned things (like words), and occurs without our awareness awareness • Mnemonic devices like chunking can help Mnemonic us retain information us • Effortful processing (like rehearsal) Effortful requires us to consciously attempt to encode information information Review Review • Semantic encoding refers to encoding the Semantic meaning of information, and tends to be more effective then visual or acoustic encoding encoding • New memories are encoding through longterm changes to our neurons • Stress and strong emotions can form Stress “flashbulb” memories that are vivid but not always accurate always Memory Memory Chapter 8: Part 2 Learning Objectives Learning • Be able to define recall, recognition, and Be relearning relearning • Understand how priming, context, and Understand mood can influence retrieval mood • Understand how failures in encoding, Understand storage, and retrieval can all contribute for forgetting forgetting • Be able to describe several ways in which Be we can construct memories we Memory Accessibility Memory • Implicit/Procedural Memory • Accessible without conscious effort • Retained in amnesia victims • Explicit/Declarative Memory • Knowledge of which you are aware Implicit vs. Explicit Memory Implicit • The Case of Clive Wearing Retrieval: Getting info out Retrieval: • Recall • Retrieve info not in conscious awareness • e.g. fill in the blank/essay test • Recognition • Identify info when it’s presented • e.g. multiple choice test • Relearning • Speed of learning forgotten info again • e.g. re-taking a course is easier Retrieval: Getting info out Retrieval: • Retrieval cues • • • Priming Context effects Mood Forgetting Forgetting • Failure in • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval Encoding failure Encoding • Some things are never encoded • We encode functional/useful info Encoding failure • Eyewitness memory yewitness inaccurate when weapon is used weapon • Selective Attention • “Weapon focus” • Pay attention to Pay weapon instead of face face Storage failure Storage • Encoded memories may decay w/time Retrieval failure Retrieval • Proactive Interference • Past memories interfere w/ Past retrieval of recent info retrieval • e.g. Where you parked • Retroactive Interference • Recent memories interfere w/ Recent retrieval of older info retrieval • e.g. Classmates over time Motivated Forgetting Motivated • Intentionally revising memories Memory Construction Memory • We sometimes “remember” We things that never actually occurred occurred • Flashbulb memories • Seemingly clear memories of emotionally significant events events Memory Construction Memory • Misinformation Effect • Memories may be altered after exposure to subtle Memories misinformation misinformation Loftus car accident study How fast were the cars going when they _________ each other? contacted hit smashed into Biasing eyewitness reports 45 40 35 34 30 25 20 31 41 Estimated Speed 15 10 5 0 Contacted Hit Smashed Description of Accident • Video Memory Construction: Memory • Source misattribution • • Forgetting where info came from e.g. “Mr. Science” study Review Review • Recall is calling up memories, recognition is Recall recognizing a stimulus based on memory, and relearning is re-encoding previously learned information. information. • Priming, context, and mood can all affect how Priming, and what we retrieve and • Forgetting may be due to improper or Forgetting incomplete encoding, a loss of storage, or the inability to retrieve a stored memory. inability Retrieval Retrieval • We can “construct” false memories by We incorporating new information into our memories, by being asked pointed or leading questions, or by forgetting where information originally came from information ...
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