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Energy for Life - Energy for Life Energy is the capacity to...

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Energy for Life Energy is the capacity to work An objects total amount of energy is the sum of potential and kinetic energy. What is Energy Potential energy is the energy available to do work Kinetic energy is the energy of motion - Energy used to work Law of Thermodyna mics 1 st Law of thermodynamics- Energy cannot be created or destroyed. - Const ant a m ount of en ergy on e arth - Cannot be converted into different forms. 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics- energy trends to flow from high energy forms to low energy forms - No transfer is 100% - Always losing en ergy in form of h e at Ex: what happ ens to food e at? - Chew – use en ergy - Digest- us es en ergy - Absorb Nutrients- we get en ergy - Every st ep loses e n ergy a s h e at. Energy is lost as he at - Heat is disordered - All en ergy transfer he ad toward disorder Entropy- Measure of disorder or ………. Entropy of the universe is always increasing Luck for us, che mical bond resist spont an eous, direction of en ergy flow. - Ex: the bonds in our body hold us and our e n ergy together. - The sun is constantly decreasing in e n ergy as plants an anim al absorb that e n ergy
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Chemical Reaction Metabolism- biochemical reactions of the cell. Cells ability to acquire energy and use it to build, degrade, store, and release substance in controlled ways. Reactants or substances-Molecules that enter a reaction Products- molecules that remain at the end Endergonic Reactions Energy input required Product has more energy that starting substances Uses ATP Builds complex molecules from simpler ones Exergonic Reactions Energy is released Product have less energy than starting substances Make ATP Break large molecules into smaller ones Chemical Reactions Not all reactions are reversible reactions Not all reactions run from the reactions to products At chemical equilibrium, the energy in the reactants equals that in the products. Oxidation- Reduction reactions = Redox Cells gain energy by breaking down molecules in small steps. - Electrons = en ergy In one st ep m olecules lose electrons = oxidized In a nother st ep other m olecules gain those electrons = reduced Redox Reactions Electron transports chains – proteins passing electrons As one proteins gains electrons it is reduced
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The reduced protein passes its electron and become = oxidized Each pass releases energy Cellular Energy All cells make ATP - Adenosine triphosph at e = ATP ATP donat es phosph at e groups to other m olecules – phosphoylotion - Enables the m to react - Accepts e n ergy from exergonic reactions - Donat es e n ergy from exergonic reactions Why Don’t Reactions Spontaneously Take Place?
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