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Data-Communications-and-Networking-Behrouz-a-Forouzan-4th-Edition

Data-Communications-and-Networking-Behrouz-a-Forouzan-4th-Edition

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Unformatted text preview: xviii C ONTENTS 17.3 SONET FRAMES 496 Frame, Byte, and Bit Transmission STS-I Frame Format 497 Overhead Summary 501 Encapsulation 501 17.4 STS MULTIPLEXING 496 503 Byte Interleaving 504 Concatenated Signal 505 AddlDrop Multiplexer 506 17.5 SONETNETWORKS 507 Linear Networks 507 Ring Networks 509 Mesh Networks 510 17.6 VIRTUAL TRIBUTARIES Types o fVTs 17.7 512 512 RECOMMENDED READING Books 513 513 17.8 KEY 1ERMS 513 17.9 SUMMARY 514 17.10 PRACTICE SET 514 Review Questions Exercises 515 Chapter 18 18.1 514 Virtual-Circuit Networks: Frame Relay and A TM FRAME RELAY 517 Architecture 518 Frame Relay Layers 519 Extended Address 521 FRADs 522 VOFR 522 LMI 522 Congestion Control and Quality o f Service 18.2 ATM 523 Design Goals 523 Problems 523 Architecture 526 Switching 529 ATM Layers 529 Congestion Control and Quality o f Service 18.3 ATM LANs 536 ATM LAN Architecture 536 LAN Emulation (LANE) 538 Client/Server Model 539 Mixed Architecture with Client/Server 18.4 RECOMMENDED READING Books 18.5 18.6 18.7 522 541 KEY 1ERMS 541 SUMMARY 541 PRACTICE SET 543 Review Questions Exercises 543 543 540 540 535 5 17 C ONTENTS PART 4 Network Layer Chapter 19 19.1 Netvvork Layer: Logical Addressing IPv4ADDRESSES IPv6 ADDRESSES 5 49 549 Address Space 550 Notations 550 Classful Addressing 552 Classless Addressing 555 Network Address Translation (NAT) 19.2 547 563 566 Structure 567 Address Space 568 19.3 RECOMMENDED READING 572 Books 572 Sites 572 RFCs 572 19.4 19.5 19.6 KEY 1ERMS 572 SUMMARY 573 PRACTICE SET 574 Review Questions 574 Exercises 574 Research Activities 577 ~h~ntor -r 20.1 ?n l \Tctwnr-b- T r n'or- Tntor-not P " . ~ INTERNETWORKING 579 Need for Network Layer 579 Internet as a Datagram Network 581 Internet as a Connectionless Network 582 ' )0 ' ) T P"Ll <;S<,) Datagram 583 Fragmentation 589 Checksum 594 Options 594 20.3 IPv6 596 Advantages 597 Packet Format 597 Extension Headers 602 20.4 TRANSITION FROM IPv4 TO IPv6 Dual Stack 604 Tunneling 604 n H. 20.5 V VJ RECOMMENDED READING Books 606 Sites 606 RFCs 606 20.6 KEY 1ERMS L U./ ; ::'IIIVIIVIAK)' 20.8 606 b Ut PRACTICE SET 607 Review Questions 607 Exercises 608 Research Activities 609 605 603 ,7 ' \70 xix xx CONTENTS Chapter 21 21.1 Network Layer: Address Mapping, Error Reporting, and Multicasting 611 ADDRESS MAPPING 611 Mapping Logical to Physical Address: ARP 612 Mapping Physical to Logical Address: RARp, BOOTP, and DHCP 2 l.2 ICMP 621 types or Messages o n Message Format 621 Error Reporting 622 Query 625 Debugging Tools 627 21.3 IGMP 630 Group Management 630 IGMP Messages 631 Message Format 631 IGMP Operation 632 Encapsulation 635 Netstat Utility 637 21.4 ICMPv6 638 Error Reporting Query 639 21.5 RECOMMENDED READING Books " ;tp 640 641 h Lll RFCs 21.6 21.7 21.8 638 641 KEY 1ERMS 641 SUMMARY 642 PRACTICE SET 643 Review Questions 643 Exercises 644 Research Activities 645 Chapter 22 22.1 DELIVERY Network Layer: Delivery, Forwarding, and Routing 647 647 Direct Versus Indirect Delivery 22.2 FORWARDING 647 648 Forwarding Techniques 648 Forwarding Process 650 I hmt;n<T 22.3 T~hlp h<;<; UNICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS Optimization 658 Intra- and Interdomain Routing Distance Vector Routing 660 Link State Routing 666 Path Vector Routing 674 22.4 658 659 MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Applications 681 Multicast Routing 682 Routing Protocols 684 678 678 618 C ONTENTS 22.5 RECOMMENDED READING 694 Books 694 Sites 694 RFCs 694 22.6 22.7 22.8 KEY 1ERMS 694 SUMMARY 695 PRACTICE SET 697 Review Questions 697 Exercises 697 Research Activities 699 PART 5 Transport Layer Chapter 23 23.1 701 Process-ta-Process Delivery: UDp, TCp, a nd S CTP 703 PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY 703 Client/Server Paradigm 704 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing 707 Connectionless Versus Connection-Oriented Service Reliable Versus Unreliable 708 Three Protocols 708 23.2 USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP) Well-Known Ports for UDP User Datagram 710 Checksum 711 U DP Operation 713 Use o fUDP 715 23.3 TCP 709 715 T CP Services 715 T CP Features 719 Segment 721 A T CP Connection 723 Flow Control 728 Error Control 731 Congestion Control 735 23.4 SCTP 736 S CTP Services 736 S CTP Features 738 Packet Format 742 An SCTP Association 743 Flow Control 748 Error Control 751 Congestion Control 753 23.5 RECOMMENDED READING Books 753 Sites 753 RFCs 753 23.6 23.7 23.8 KEY1ERMS 754 SUMMARY 754 PRACTICE SET 756 Review Questions 756 Exercises 757 Research Activities 759 753 709 707 xxi xxii CONTENTS Chapter 24 24.1 24.2 Congestion Control a nd Quality of'Service DATA 1RAFFIC 761 Traffic Descriptor 761 Traffic Profiles 762 CONGESTION 763 N etwork Performance 24.3 24.4 764 CONGESTION CONTROL 765 Open-Loop Congestion Control 766 Closed-Loop Congestion Control 767 l WO EXAMPLES 768 Congestion Control i n T CP 769 C ongestion Control i n Frame Relay 24.5 QUALITY OF SERVICE F low Characteristics Flow Classes 776 24.6 773 775 775 1ECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE QoS 776 Scheduling 776 Traffic Shaping 777 Resource Reservation 780 Admission Control 780 24.7 INTEGRATED SERVICES 780 Signaling 781 Flow Specification 781 Admission 781 Service Classes 781 R SVP 782 Problems with Integrated Services 24.8 784 DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES 785 DS Field 24.9 24.10 24.11 24.12 24.13 785 QoS IN SWITCHED NETWORKS 786 QoS in Frame Relay 787 QoS i nATM 789 RECOMMENDED READING 790 B ooks 791 KEY 1ERMS 791 SUMMARY 791 PRACTICE SET 792 Review Questions Exercises 793 PART 6 Application Layer Chapter 25 25.1 792 NAME SPACE Domain Name Svstem 798 F lat Name Space 798 Hierarchical Name Space 25.2 795 798 DOMAIN NAME SPACE 799 L abel 799 D omain N arne 799 D omain 801 7 97 767 C ONTENTS 25.3 DISTRIBUTION OF NAME SPACE xxiii 801 Hierarchy o f Name Servers 802 Zone 802 Root Server 803 Primary and Secondary Servers 803 25.4 DNS IN THE INTERNET 803 Generic Domains 804 Country Domains 805 Inverse Domain 805 25.5 RESOLUTION 806 Resolver 806 Mapping Names to Addresses 807 Mapping Address to Names 807 Recursive Resolution 808 Iterative Resolution 808 Caching 808 25.6 DNS MESSAGES Header 25.7 809 809 TYPES OF RECORDS 811 Question Record 811 Resource Record 811 25.8 25.9 25.10 25.11 REGISTRARS 811 DYNAMIC DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DDNS) ENCAPSULATION 812 RECOMMENDED READING 812 812 Books 813 Sites 813 RFCs 813 25.12 KEY TERMS 813 25.13 SUMMARY 813 25.14 PRACTICE SET 814 Review Questions Exercises 815 Chapter 26 26.1 Remote Logging, Electronic Mail, and File Transfer REMOTE LOGGING TELNET 26.2 814 817 817 ELECTRONIC MAIL 824 Architecture 824 User Agent 828 Message Transfer Agent: SMTP 834 Message Access Agent: POP and IMAP Web-Based Mail 839 26.3 FILE TRANSFER 840 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Anonymous FTP 844 26.4 RECOMMENDED READING Books 845 Sites 845 RFCs 845 26.5 26.6 840 KEY TERMS 845 SUMMARY 846 845 837 817 xxiv C ONTENTS 2 6.7 PRACTICE SET 8 47 Review Questions 847 Exercises 848 Research Activities 848 Chapter 27 W WW a nd HTTP 7 '71 dR 27.2 851 Client (Browser) 852 Server 852 Uniform Resource Locator 853 Cookies 853 WEB DOCUMENTS 8 54 ... Hall., L 'V.,Ulll<OllLO 2 7.3 2 7.4 27.5 27.6 2 7.7 Chapter 28 28.1 O JJ Dynamic Documents 857 Active Documents 860 HTTP 861 HTTPTransaction 861 Persistent Versus Nonpersistent Connection Proxy Server 868 RECOMMENDED READING 8 69 Books 869 Sites 869 RFCs 869 KEY l ERMS 8 69 SUMMARY 8 70 PRACTICE SET 871 Review Questions 871 Exercises 871 868 Network Management: S NMP NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 873 8 73 Configuration Management 874 Fault Management 875 Performance Management 876 .. Accountmg Management . R 7h 1\ -~ 28.2 877 SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (SNMP) Concept 877 Management Components 878 Structure of Management Information ' ''''' . T•• ". • Lexicographic Ordering SNMP 891 Messages 893 UDP Ports 895 Security 897 28.3 28.5 ,~. {~KTD\ \""" , I K EYlERMS 8 97 SUMMARY 898 881 0 0':; ~~ 889 RECOMMENDED READING Books 897 Sites 897 RFCs 897 2 8.4 D. 8 97 877 C ONTENTS 28.6 PRACTICE SET Review Questions Exercises 899 Chapter 29 29.1 899 899 M ultimedia 901 DIGITIZING AUDIO AND VIDEO 902 Digitizing Audio 902 Digitizing Video 902 29.2 AUDIO AND VIDEO COMPRESSION 903 Audio Compression 903 Video Compression 904 29.3 STREAMING STORED AUDIO/VIDEO 908 First Approach: Using a Web Server 909 Second Approach: Using a Web Server with Metafile 909 Third Approach: Using a Media Server 910 Fourth Approach: Using a Media Server and RTSP 911 29.4 29.5 STREAMING LIVE AUDIOIVIDEO 912 REAL-TIMEINTERACTIVEAUDIOIVIDEO Characteristics 29.6 RTP 912 916 RTP Packet Format U DPPort 919 29.7 RTCP 917 919 Sender Report 919 Receiver Report 920 Source Description Message 920 Bye Message 920 Application-Specific Message 920 UDP Port 920 29.8 VOICE OVER IP 920 SIP 920 H.323 923 29.9 RECOMMENDED READING 925 Books 925 Sites 925 29.lO KEY 1ERMS 925 29.11 SUMMARY 926 29.12 PRACTICE SET 927 Review Questions 927 Exercises 927 Research Activities 928 PART 7 Security Chapter 30 30.1 929 C ryptography INTRODUCTION 931 931 Definitions 931 Two Categories 932 30.2 SYMMETRIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY Traditional Ciphers 935 Simple Modem Ciphers 938 935 912 x xv xxvi CONTENTS Modem Round Ciphers ~ ,r 0 . oL "~ 30.3 . "' ~ ~ • 940 " "'-"- "~ /,~ ASYMMETRIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY RSA 949 Diffie-Hellman 949 952 30.4 RECOMMENDED READING . JU.::l Books 956 ~r I t<oK IVI:"I 30.6 30.7 956 SUMMARY 957 PRACTICE SET 958 ~::l() Review Questions 958 Exercises 959 Research Activities 960 Chapter 31 31.1 Network Security SECURITY SERVICES 961 961 Message Confidentiality 962 Message Integrity 962 Message Authentication 962 Message Nonrepudiation 962 Entity Authentication 962 31.2 MESSAGE CONFIDENTIALITY 962 Confidentiality with Symmetric-Key Cryptography 963 Confidentiality with A~mmetric- K~ CIY]2tQgnmlrr 963 31.3 MESSAGE INTEGRITY 964 Document and Fingerprint 965 Message and Message Digest 965 Difference 965 Creating and Checking the Digest 966 Hash Function Criteria 966 Hash Algorithms: SHA-l 967 31.4 MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION MAC 31.5 DIGITAL SIGNATURE Comparison < -""7" ,,~ Process 973 Services 974 Signature Schemes 976 ENTITY AUTHENTICATION Passwords - 31.7 971 971 1I.T " " c " . TT " ,vvU ~v~ H .v)J 31.6 969 969 976 976 ';110 KEY MANAGEMENT 981 Symmetric-Key Distribution 981 Public-Key Distribution 986 31.8 RECOMMENDED READING Books 990 31.9 KEY TERMS 990 31.10 SUMMARY 991 31.11 PRACTICE SET 992 Review Questions 992 Exercises 993 Research Activities 994 990 X XVII Chapter 32 32.1 Security in the Internet: IPSec, SSUTLS, PGP, VPN, a nd Firewalls 995 IPSecurity (IPSec) 996 Two Modes 996 Two Security Protocols 998 Security Association 1002 Internet Key Exchange (IKE) 1004 Virtual Private Network 1004 32.2 S SUfLS 1008 SSL Services 1008 Security Parameters 1009 Sessions and Connections 1011 Four Protocols 1012 Transnort Laver C'. 1 0n 32.3 PGP 1014 Security Parameters 10 15 Services 10 15 A Scenario 1016 PGP Algorithms 1017 Key Rings 1018 PGP Certificates 1019 32.4 FIREWALLS 1021 Packet-Filter Firewall 1022 Proxy Firewall 1023 32.5 RECOMMENDED READING J:lOOKS 32.6 32.7 32.8 KEY 1ERMS 1024 SUMMARY 1025 PRACTICE SET 1026 Review Questions Exercises 1026 1026 Appendix A A .l 1024 l UL4 Unicode UNICODE Planes . 1.)"'1" 1029 1029 1030 .. " l r 1<111e; ~.1.)lV1r ) 1 VJV Supplementary Multilingual Plane (SMP) 1032 Supplementary Ideographic Plane (SIP) 1032 Supplementary Special Plane (SSP) 1032 Private Use Planes (PUPs) 1032 A.2 ASCII 1032 ::.ome t'ropertles or A ::'LU Appendix B Numbering Systems B .l BASE 10: DECIMAL B.2 BASE 2: BINARY Weights l UjO 1037 1038 Weights 1038 Conversion 1038 1038 1 037 xxviii CONTENTS B.3 BASE 16: HEXADECIMAL 1039 Weights 1039 Conversion 1039 A Comparison 1040 BA BASE 256: IP ADDRESSES 1040 Weights 1040 Conversion 1040 B.5 OTHER CONVERSIONS 1041 Binary and Hexadecimal 1041 Base 256 and Binary 1042 Appendix C C.I M athematical Review TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1043 1043 Sine Wave 1043 Cosine Wave 1045 Other Trigonometric Functions 1046 Trigonometric Identities 1046 C.2 FOURIER ANALYSIS 1046 Fourier Series 1046 Fourier Transform 1048 C.3 EXPONENT AND LOGARITHM 1050 Exponential Function 1050 Logarithmic Function 1051 Appendix 0 8 BI6T Code Appendix E Telephone History Before 1984 1059 Between 1984 and 1996 After 1996 1059 JOSS 1059 Appendix F Contact Addresses Appendix G R FCs Appendix H UDP a nd TCP Ports A cronyms G lossary 1067 1071 References I ndex 1111 1107 1059 1061 0 63 1065 culture today. One o f the ramifications o f that growth is a dramatic increase in the number o f professions where an understanding o f these technologies is essential for s uccessand a proportionate increase in the number and types o f students taking courses to learn about them. Features o f the Book Several features o f this text are designed to make it particularly easy for students to understand data communications and networking. Structure We have used the five-layer Internet model as the framework for the text not only because a thorough understanding o f the model is essential to understanding most current networking theory but also because it is based o n a structure o f interdependencies: Each layer cept introduced in our text builds upon the concepts examined in the previous sections. The Internet model was chosen because it is a protocol that is fully implemented. This text is designed for students with little or no background in telecommunications o r data communications. For this reason, we use a bottom-up approach. With this approach, students learn first about data communications (lower layers) before learning about networking (upper layers). Visual A pproach The book presents highly technical subject matter without complex formulas by using a visual and intuitive opportunity for understanding the material. Figures are particularly important in explaining networking concepts, which are based on connections and transmission. Both o f these ideas are easy to grasp visually. H ighlighted Points We emphasize important concepts in highlighted boxes for quick reference and immediate attention. xxix x xx P REFACE Examples a nd Applications When appropriate, we have selected examples to reflect true-to-life situations. For example, in Chapter 6 we have shown several cases o f telecommunications in current telephone networks. R ecommended Reading Key Terms Each chapter includes a list o f key terms for the student. Each chapter ends with a summary o f the material covered in that chapter. The summary provides a brief overview o f all the important points in the chapter. Practice Set Each chapter includes a practice set designed to reinforce and apply salient concepts. I t consists o f three parts: review questions, exercises, and research activities (only for appropriate chapters). Review questions are intended to test the student's first-level understanding o f the material presented in the chapter. Exercises require deeper understanding o f the material. Research activities are desi ned to create motivation for further stud . A ppendixes The appendixes are intended to provide quick reference material or a review o f materials needed to understand the concepts discussed in the book. Glossary a nd A cronyms The book contains an extensive glossary and a list o f acronyms. Changes in the Fourth Edition and in the contents. Organization The following lists the changes in the organization o f the book: 1. Chapter 6 now contains multiplexing as well as spreading. 2. Chapter 8 is now totally devoted to switching. 3. The contents o f Chapter 12 are moved to Chapter 11. 4. Chapter 17 covers SONET technology. 5. Chapter 19 discusses IP addressing. 6. Chapter 20 is devoted to the Internet Protocol. 7. Chapter 21 discusses three protocols: ARP, ICMP, and IGMP. 8. Chapter 28 is new and devoted to network management in the Internet. PREFACE xxxi Contents We have revised the contents o f many chapters including the following: 1. T he contents o f C hapters 1 to 5 are revised and augmented. Examples are added to clarify the contents. 2. The contents o f C hapter 10 are revised and augmented to include methods o f e rror detection and correction. 3. Chapter 11 is revised to include a full discussion o f several control link protocols. 4. Delivery, forwarding, and routing o f datagrams are added to Chapter 22. 5. The new transport protocol, SCTP, is added to Chapter 23. 6. T he contents o f C hapters 30, 31, and 32 are revised and augmented to include additional discussion about securit issues and the Internet. 7. New examples are added to clarify the understanding o f concepts. E nd Materials 1. A section is added to the end o f e ach chapter listing additional sources for study. r v' w q e i n up a e . 3. The multiple-choice questions are moved to the book site to allow students to self-test their knowledge about the contents o f the chapter and receive immediate feedback. 4. Exercises are revised and new ones are added to the appropriate chapters. 5. Some chapters contain research activities. I nstructional Materials Instructional materials for both the student and the teacher are revised and augmented. The solutions to exercises contain both the explanation and answer including full colhensive and include text and figures. Contents T he book is divided into seven parts. The first part is an overview; the last part concerns network security. The middle five parts are designed to represent the five layers o f the Internet model. The following summarizes the contents o f each part. Part One: Overview t er 1 covers introductory concepts needed for the rest o f the book. Chapter 2 introduces the Internet model. Part Two: Physical Layer xxxii PREFACE Part Three: Data L ink L ayer I he thIrd part IS devoted to the dlscusslOn of the data lmk layer o f the Internet model. Chapter 10 covers error detection and correction. Chapters 11, 12 discuss issues related to data link control. Chapters 13 through 16 deal with LAN s. Chapters 17 and 18 are about WANs. LANs and WANs are examples o f networks operating in the first two layers o f the Internet model. Part Four: Network Layer The fourth part is devoted to the discussion o f the network layer o f the Internet model. Chapter 19 covers IP addresses. Chapters 20 and 21 are devoted to the network layer protocols sllch as IP, ARP, ICMP, and IGMP. Chapter 22 discusses delivery. forwarding, and routing of packets in the Internet. Part Five: Transport Layer The fifth part is devoted to the discussion of the transport layer o f the Internet model. Chapter 23 gives an overview o f the transpOIt layer and discusses the services and duties o f this layer. I t also introduces three transport-layer protocols: UDP, TCP, and SCTP. C hapter 24 discusses congestion control and quality o f service, two issues related to the transport layer and the previous two layers. Part Six: Application Layer The sixth part is devoted to the discussion o f the application layer o f the Internet model. Chapter 25 is about DNS, the application program that is used by other application prQgrams to map application layer addresses to network layer addresses. Chapter 26 to 29 discuss some common applications protocols in the Internet. Part Seven: Security The seventh part is a discussion o f security. I t serves as a prelude to further study in this subject. Chapter 3 0 briefly discusses cryptography. Chapter 31 introduces security aspects. Chapter 32 shows how different security aspects can be applied to three layers o f the Internet model. Online Learning Center The McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center contains much additional material Ava ilable at www.mhhe.com/forouzan. As students read through Data Communications and Networking, they can go online to take self-grading quizzes. They can also access lecture materials such as PowerPoint slides, and get additional review from animated figures from the book. Selected solutions are also available over the Web. T he solutions to od...
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