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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CIS 3003 - Chapter 4 Computing devices trace back to the Abacus- an ancient calculation tool made of stone or wood with beads that slide along wires. Mechanical calculation tools in the 1600s included William Oughtreds slide rule , Blaise Pascals arithmetic machine (addition and subtraction) and Leibnizs step reckoner (could take square roots) Calculation tools of the 1800s included Charles Babbages Difference and Analytical engines . Analytical engine was a programmable, general-purpose computing machine that relied on the use of punch cards. Augusta Ada Byron , the Countess of Lovelace worked with Babbage in programming the analytical engine. She is considered to be the first computer programmer . Babbage = father of modern computing Herman Hollerith developed the tabulating machine to tabulate the 1890 US census data using punch cards. This was used in the 1890 census to gather information. Hollerith is the founder of IBM ( International Business Machines ) The punch card concept is attributed to Joseph Marie Jacquard . John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at the Iowa State College built the ABC ( Atanasoff-Berry Computer ) regarded as the first automatic digital electronic computer. Konrad Zuse built the Z3 the first digital programmable general purpose computer. Howard Aiken Mark 1 (fully automatic electronic computer) which was programmed by Grace Murray Hopper . British scientists built the Colossus John Mauchly and J. Presper Ecket built the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ) The transistor and integrated circuit enable smaller computers compared to vacuum tubes. DEC Digital Equipment Corporation Popular Electronics ran a feature story about a home do-it-yourself computer kit called the Altair Radio Shack sold the TRS-80 home computer and Apple introduced its own brand. IBM introduces its personal computer (PC) in 1981. Computers made by different manufacturers could not communicate at first, until the Internet Protocol was established. Electronic technology continues to evolve with increased capacity and performance with reduced costs. A computer has one or more main chips called the microprocessor which performs most of the processing, and several other supporting chips Integrated circuits such as microprocessors are built by combining transistors together to create logic gates . These basic building blocks can be combined to create successively larger building blocks, which may subsequently be combined to create integrated circuits such as microprocessors. Integrated circuits are builts using the following types of logic gates....
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course CIS CIS 3003 taught by Professor K during the Spring '10 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '10