Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Digital information refers to...

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Chapter 2 Digital information – refers to representations of numbers, text, sounds, and images as a combination of two fundamental logical symbols: one and zero. These symbols are also called binary symbols, binary digits, or bits. Digital devices – process information in the form of ones and zeros, in other words they speak a binary language. In order to process digital information, these devices contain basic switches that switch on and off to represent bits. The first switch created was the vacuum tube – a device resembling a light bulb that could be turned on or off using electronic controls. Used today in audio amplifiers. Transistor – another type of switch, an electronic switch that can be controlled electrically to turn on or off, just like a mechanical switch controlled by hand. Was smaller and more reliable than the vacuum tube. Consumed less power and could be switched at a faster rate. Size of a micrometer. Integrated Circuit (IC) – commonly called a chip. Enabled more efficient manufacturing and packaging of transistors, further reducing the size of digital devices. As companies develop smaller transistors and fit more of them of ICs, digital devices become smaller and more powerful. Gordon Moore – co founder of Intel Moore’s Law – the number of transistors that can be integrate on an integrated circuit doubles every 18 months. Moore’s law will reach its limit in the future. Analog information – most info in daily life is in analog format, not in terms of ones and zeros. Captured and presented in its original form and does not exist in combinations of ones and zeros. When we speak, we exchange information in analog format; what he hear varies proportionally or analogously to the sound produced by the person who is speaking. Speedometer is an analog device Analog-to-digital converters – we digitize information using these devices for communication, storage, and processing. To do this we reduce the infinite values to a finite set of values. Converting information from its natural form to a bunch of 1’s and 0’s First task to digitize is to reduce infinite number of speed measurements to a finite number. In other terms we make the information discrete. Reducing infinite number of speed measurements corresponds to sampling each measurement. The next task is to round the speed valuest o the closest speed value available. Finally the rounded-off speed values are assigned a binary code. Discrete
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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Digital information refers to...

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