NERS211%20F06%20Final%20v1%20solns

NERS211%20F06%20Final%20v1%20solns - .- ' ' I December 18,...

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Unformatted text preview: .- ' ' I December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name 5 . L.- ' €090; - NERS 211 ‘H (9% Malamute“: 52mg: mg “L4, 3239M %:ERS@1PL ’7' 60!): mg,” 95797—1635 aside 3 1 Final Exam "1 have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this examination, nor have I concealed any violations of the Honor Code. " You may use your calculator, The Chart of the Nuclides, and a two pages of notes prepared by you. Make sure that all answers with dimensions have units attached to them. 8 Digit UM ID Number: The following mass data from the 16m Chart of the Nuclides, in MeV, may be useful: me= 0.510 998 90 Inn: 939.565 33 mp: 938.271 998 malpha = 3727.379 1 amu = 931.494 Other data is given with various problems, and you have your Chart of the Nuclides. Other facts that might be helpful. 1 Curie= 3.7 x 1010 dps 1 dps= 1 Bq 1.6 )(10‘19 J=1eV 1 ton TNT equivalent = 4.2 x 109 J 200 MeV released per fission reaction 10 MeV released per fusion reaction Background dose rate is ~300 mrem/year BEIR V estimated that 104 person-rems is equivalent to one latent cancer fatality l Sieven= 100 Rem Avogadro’s Constant = 6.023 x 1023 atoms/mole 2. to P35, ’r’a 4’8‘ {he 6%. W . a. 34 ‘1‘ [5’ x/ E f. 16‘ T427111. 1 of8 V731. W December 18, 2006 v. 1 - Name ‘50:! US NERS 21 > CD 5 1. Nuclear p0 er reactors come in a variety of types. From the diagrams below, identify the type ofreacton Containment Turbinl A _ Ganlrator 20f8 December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name U S NERS 21 l 2. State the fundamental difference between a thermal reactor and a fast reactor. ‘71:. (5%? 0F fie Mafia»; M 65‘6"} [.0 @5 'Me chub feaai‘tét. U0 3. For thermal reactors in use today, name at least three materials used as: A I L ' 6% q S (a). Coolant: MI D10, CD: )5 M.)- (b). Moderator (mgr/e! )20 I.-‘ '1; 4: Describe what is meant by “defense in depth” when design en ineers discuss reactor safety. ,1! Of‘ [59 4‘99.“ )6 71056 are fi’e /¢ ,5 W M W E WC élé Slur/J Confiran . Aka 56" eMfiW ii577 J ECCS, 4mm sWr‘fg/p'm ‘5st:,” . MAL mall-«hp. 5. The figure shows the activity of spent reactor fuel from a typical li ht water reactor. Natural ore 10" r 2; :5: 2: has an activity of 10I Bq/MTHM for comparison. ‘ 10!! 5 (a). Estimate the length of time spent fuel must be .6 (X5 stored in order to reach “ore equivalent”. ’V 2.0!000 35 ‘ r ‘,_}' u -, ACTIVITY (Bq PER MTHM) t k - ..—r 4.1—4” j (b). Using this curve, estimate the length of time \4 the spent fuel must be stored if the actinides are 1 10 mo 1 o 1 4 5 Q recycled and returned as fuel to the reactor and TIME swce DISCHARGE (YEARS) m 10 consumed. 4' b%es (this difference is the reason behind the actinide burner program now being promoted by DOE). 3of8 ll) December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name ecu/«J S NERS 211 6. The two most noteworthy reactor accidents occurred at Three Mile Island and ' k5 Chernobyl. In both cases, operator error was a major factor and both led to the ‘ 9 f destruction of the reactor core. But the consequences were radically different. Give two key reasons why the TM] accident had relatively minor effects on the local public. 5 a. fil- was of East/e Mk 5 b. Conga-1' M QI/d/gé‘? . mAZ’1Mg/gg 215 rue/m that? 5 7. Although all modern nuclear weapons use 239Pu, the international community is more {0 W concerned with rogues acquiring highly-enriched 235U instead. Why? 0 U (’c £23401 cg, 69 Maoé are a, m emf/3 gig/WW er a “32m” ggmfi. 13—75 game mag/on ‘95 23:11, 1’4 VIWQ/é UgJei‘ccfl/e £6 Fagan Warsaw ab b’é an; sap/w Mk aim. 4C[\ 8. Identify which assertions apply to fission (f1) or fusion (fu) or both (fi+fu): Z ‘2 a ' F' Most energy released per reaction S) 17 + F“. Can provide a virtually inexhaustible supply of energy I F? Reaction can be self-sustaining using fast neutrons F7 1"- FLL Can breed more fuel 7:. Simpler to engineer and keep working 77¢. F? +- F'gz Used in nuclear weapons Weapons proliferation not an issue in electricity generation r12 True source of solar power F? F," Power-plant only nieeds to be refueled every couple of years. “8” Waste products are very long—lived and hazardous P [+09% 4of8 I December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name ‘55:.- V5 NERS 211 9. The sources of energy for U. S. electricity production are listed in their relative useage below. State at least one key advantage and disadvantage for the future a plicati n f each source in the U.S.: Advantage Diaflantage ( Z , - a. a f r when ‘—f 5 Coal ’3‘ ,9 Nuclear J I I C — Cleaner 3 co " SM lair—5 a; Natural G more coup " V06; ft. 1 - 5 mm 0': Narnia: Hydroelectric about” 5:15 e -no Add! ‘57‘65 Qw'lf- _ €3.96“va W {tug Solar chmfm J P ’ F: “HMO—rt: Maud-Tue. HAW; wr‘lk It‘an“, 4H“ —Ul\§tc‘|/HJKJ mime“ (an-l, M‘i'eWp'Héie 10. Identify each of the following statements as being True or False: ( ga 255 T ' A nuclear bomb is an assembly of special nuclear material that is designed to go prompt supercritical. Wind elem F'— The activity of a source depends on the number of radioactive nuclei, the half- life, and the energy released during the decay. I: In either fission or fusion, energy is released because the average binding energy per nucleon increases. ' 7-. A reactor poison is material that readin absorbs neutrons. Some examples include boron and xenon, and, in some cases, even water can act as a poison. T The heaviest nuclei are likely to either alpha decay or spontaneously fission as their primary modes of decay. "r 'Three Mile Island is properly classified as a Loss of Coolant Accident. F The same fissile isotopes, moderators and reflectors can be used in either nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. '1 Centrifuges are the most efficient method for Uranium enrichment today. ; A CANDU reactor uses a liquid metal (typically liquid sodium) as both moderator and coolant. ; Neutron-induced fission products include fission fragments, prompt thermal neutrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos. page, 5 of8 {0+5 December 18, 2006 v. 1 NERS 211 at L 2;;Am am” +31 4 1*?— 0 1%? 44* 145i —>+° + '3 A b. Compiet each of these reactions: ’{ L 58M + n EL+ p X 7, 9Bee + a —>l z + n c. Write each of the reactions in part b in the form X(a, b)Y . 5‘3 '2 *‘ fall/£0442) 00 *l Ffifiam C 12. Consider the following fission process: n + ’fiU —> :Sr + lier+ Vn a. How many neutrons, v, are released in this fission? 236 -' 1 3b 3 =' 4 b. What are the ultimate stable descendants of the two fission products? L a.) . 1:: J16- . " __ a. - 12 . qagr. a M1415 +0 Y Hildath Jams "0 94:66 gait: 56 .. ,- c. How much energy is released in the beta decay of these fission products? 3’: 5.37 175v+ 7401M: 12,47 44/ \- 6of8 December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name QL’US .. NERS 211 d. How much total energy is released during the fission process? (i.e., the Q value). to Q = (mm ' mafiw) Caz 2. =[(”’n "' “we-:5" (m‘lo +Mm. * 4Mnfl G .. 3231; 043 @233- (16.51flé65Pt36-q0722 4- 39,00? éégfltf .; [235.043 925 —— 5%.3‘5‘1‘ w] 931,494c m am: -_— )7o,07‘7‘ 148V *- lZ-‘H PW Aéafcf molar: mar 4‘ M 431. 44% : Q6473 276+ .53qu = 95.92! Q55 e. What fraction of the total energy released in the fission appears in the initial event (i.e., not including the later fission product decays). :7é.@7%— 22.4? , fid: m: /'— .077 :7 ffbflwf 17¢ [079‘ . S/g 4L _ .— HA. 7of8 December 18, 2006 v. 1 Name 291.3525 NERS 211 13. In a 21111101631“ waste repository, 24EPu undergoes beta-decay with a half-life of 14.4 4 years to Am, which then decays by alpha emission with a half-life of 433 years. If no 241Am initially exists, calculate the time when the MAI!) population reaches its maximum (i.e., when its production rate equals its loss rate). 1“: ' 171L7- One Cam WW4: '. ...: .1?“ a: MPH-,3?- Uflo)’ 0H: -:\-t and $349 : a“ VA 4. "AVA/P g a,“ + nPwos e P ... "24* mi alue: Mm): W [cyt— .7 "' P I: M (75—7?) Tm 5/42. Ti: 5» T; we; 1: E». p,“ [7.111 1 I44 +3.3 fin: 80f8 ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course NERS 211 taught by Professor Wehe during the Fall '07 term at University of Michigan.

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NERS211%20F06%20Final%20v1%20solns - .- ' ' I December 18,...

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