chapter 4 slides - 1 CGS 3269 Chapter 4 MARIE: An...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CGS 3269 Chapter 4 MARIE: An Introduction to a Simple Computer CGS 3269 2 Chapter 4 Objectives Learn the components common to every modern computer system computer system. Be able to explain how each component contributes to program execution. Understand a simple architecture invented to illuminate these basic concepts, and how it relates to some real architectures. Know how the program assembly process works. 2 CGS 3269 3 4.1 Introduction Chapter 1 presented a general overview of computer systems . In Chapter 2, we discussed how data is stored and manipulated by various computer system components. Chapter 3 described the fundamental components of digital circuits. Having this background we can now understand Having this background, we can now understand how computer components work, and how they fit together to create useful computer systems. CGS 3269 4 4.2 CPU Basics The computers CPU fetches, decodes, and executes program instructions . The two principal parts of the CPU are the datapath and the control unit . o The datapath consists of an arithmetic-logic unit and storage units (registers) that are interconnected by a data bus that is also connected to main memory. o Various CPU components perform sequenced operations according to signals provided by its control unit. 3 CGS 3269 5 Registers hold data that can be readily accessed by the CPU. 4.2 CPU Basics They can be implemented using D flip-flops . o A 32-bit register requires 32 D flip-flops . The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) carries out logical and arithmetic operations as directed by the control unit. The control unit determines which actions to carry out according to the values in a program counter register and a status register. CGS 3269 6 4.3 The Bus The CPU shares data with other system components by way of a data bus. o A bus is a set of wires that simultaneously convey a single bit along each line. Two types of buses are commonly found in computer systems: point-to-point , and multipoint buses. This is a point-to-point bus configuration: 4 CGS 3269 7 Buses consist of data lines, control lines, and address lines. 4.3 The Bus While the data lines convey bits from one device to another, control lines determine the direction of data flow, and when each device can access the bus. Address lines determine the location of the source or destination of the data. The next slide shows a model bus configuration. CGS 3269 8 4.3 The Bus 5 CGS 3269 9 A multipoint bus is shown below. Because a multipoint bus is a shared resource, 4.3 The Bus access to it is controlled through protocols, which are built into the hardware. CGS 3269 10 In a master-slave configuration, where more than one device can be the bus master, concurrent 4.3 The Bus o Distributed using self-detection: Devices decide which gets the bus among themselves....
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chapter 4 slides - 1 CGS 3269 Chapter 4 MARIE: An...

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