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# IM-Ch2 - Exam 2 Spring 2012 Name Closed book No calculators...

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Page 1 Last Updated: November 2003 Chapter 2 Instructor's Manual ______________________________________________________________________________ Chapter Objectives Chapter 2, Data Representation, provides thorough coverage of the various means computers use to represent both numerical and character information. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are covered once the reader has been exposed to number bases and the typical numeric representation techniques, including one’s complement, two’s complement, and BCD. In addition, EBCDIC, ASCII, and Unicode character representations are addressed. Fixed and floating point representation are also introduced. Codes for data recording and error detection and correction are covered briefly. This chapter should be covered after Chapter 1, but before Chapters 4 through 11. Lectures should focus on the following points: Number systems. Most students have been exposed to positional number systems and different bases. However, these concepts are crucial to understanding the remainder of Chapter 2, so they should be covered in detail. Decimal to binary conversions. Because the binary number system translates easily into electronic circuitry, it is important to become familiar with how computer represent values. Signed versus unsigned numbers. Representing unsigned numbers in binary form is much less complicated than dealing with signed numbers. Signed integer representation. There are basically three methods for representing signed numbers: signed magnitude, one's complement, and two's complement. Each of these methods should be covered, with the focus on signed magnitude and two's complement notations. Binary arithmetic. Although people do not often add binary values, performing binary addition and subtraction helps to reinforce the concepts necessary for understanding data representation. In particular, these operations illustrate the dangers of overflow conditions. Floating point representation. Computers must be able to represent floating point numbers, and there are numerous possible formats for doing so. Potential errors that may result from the limitations of the representation are also important to discuss. Character representation. ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode and BCD are all important character codes. Lectures should emphasize the similarities and differences among these codes. Codes for data recording and transmission. When binary data is written to some sort of medium or transmitted over long distances, the binary one's and zero's can become The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture Linda Null and Julia Lobur Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2003

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Page 2 Last Updated: November 2003 blurred. Some sort of encoding is necessary to ensure that characters are properly encoded in these situations. Error detection and correction. Regardless of the coding method used, no communications channel or storage medium is error-free. Although simple parity bits can help to detect errors, more complicated codes, including cyclic redundancy checks and Hamming codes, and are often necessary for sophisticated error detection and correction.
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IM-Ch2 - Exam 2 Spring 2012 Name Closed book No calculators...

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