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frq - 3 Succession a Describe the process of primary and...

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3. Succession a) Describe the process of primary and secondary succession noting the differences between them. Include the causes, time frame involved, pioneer species, mid- and late- successional plant species. i) Primary succession is the colonization and establishment of pioneer plant species on bare ground. Primary succession begins with an essentially lifeless area where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem. Examples include a bare rock exposed by a retreating glacier or severe soil erosion, newly cooled lava, an abandoned highway of parking lot, or a newly created shallow pond or reservoir. Examples of pioneer species that begin soil formation are lichens and mosses. Mid-successional plant species include herbs, grasses, and low shrubs. Late-successional plant species include mostly trees (can tolerate shade). Secondary succession involves the reestablishment or biotic communites in an area where some type of biotic community is already present. It begins in an area where the
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