lec5_PylabIntro -   Scatter plot – styles and options,...

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Unformatted text preview:   Scatter plot – styles and options, subplots, dual axes, decorations and annotations, text inclusions   Other types of plots – polar axes, vector plots   Interacting with plots, animations (not working yet!) Class Notes   Output formats – bitmap vs vector   Hand in HW#1 hard copy and email the code   Pick up HW#2   You should be reading in Chap. 4   Download Pylab manual from my website and look over it.   Generally in scientific work we use scatter plots. Other types are bar charts, bubble chart, …   plot command allows for many types of marker and line types and colors. Format is: plot(x,y,’g-o’). Type ‘help(plot)’ to see all the options from pylab import * t=linspace(0,10,100) RC=2.0 V=10*exp(-t/RC) plot(t,V, r-s ,label= Circuit 1 ) legend(loc=1) xlabel( Time (s) , fontsize=16) ylabel( Potential (V) ,fontsize=16) show()   Can plot multiple curves on a graph by repeatedly calling plot commands.   ‘label’ / legend() command labels each curve from pylab import * t=linspace(0,10,100) def V(t,RC): return 10*exp(-t/RC) RCvals=[0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0] markers=['o','s','^','+','D'] for i in range( len(RCvals) ): marker=markers[i] RC=RCvals[i] plot(t,V(t,RC),'b-'+marker, \ label='RC=%2.1f'%RC) legend(loc=1) xlabel('Time (s)', fontsize=16) ylabel('Potential (V)',fontsize=16) show()   Sometimes one curve has a very different scale than the other curves.   Add a 2nd y-axis (on the right) with a different scale. Use the ‘twinx()’ function (yes ‘x’, not ‘y’) x=linspace(0,10,100) y1=sqrt(x) y2=x**3 plot(x,y1,'g-',lw=2,label='Sqrt(x)') ylabel('Sqrt(x)') legend(loc=2) ax2=twinx() plot(x,y2,'b--',lw=2,label='x^3') ylabel('x^3') xlabel('x') legend(loc=4)   Add several separate graphs to one Figure frame.   Use: subplot(columns,rows,currentplot) x=linspace(-np.pi,np.pi,100) subplot(221) plot(x,sin(x)) xlabel('X') ylabel('Sin(x)') subplot(222) plot(x,cos(x)) xlabel('X') ylabel('Cos(x)') subplot(223) plot(x,tan(x)) xlabel('X') ylabel('Tan(x)') subplot(224) plot(x,cosh(x)) xlabel('X') ylabel('Cosh(x)')   Can annotate with arrows and text: text(xfig,yfig,string) and annotate(‘text’,xy=(xpos,ypos), xytext=(xpos,ypos), arrowprops=dict(..)) x=linspace(0,np.pi,100) plot(x,tan(x),'g-',lw=2) annotate('A pole',xy=(np.pi/2.0,50), xytext=(0.25,10), fontsize=16, arrowprops=dict(facecolor='blue',shrink=0.05)) text(2,40,'$\int_0^\pi \mathrm{tan}(x) = 0$',fontsize=25)   Add a second figure frame for a new plot in the same script.   figure(2) or figure(2,figsize=(8,6), facecolor=‘lightgoldenrodyellow’,edgecolor=‘blue’)   Polar plots can be created with: polar(theta,r)   Other style attributes (like lw, color, ms,…) still apply.   Vectors have both magnitude and direction.  On an x,y grid, the field will have both and x and y component. Use ‘meshgrid’ to create the 2D x,y grid.   quiver plot will plot the direction and magnitude of the field at each point. x,y=meshgrid(linspace (0,2*np.pi,30),linspace (0,2*np.pi,30)) U=sin(x) V=cos(y) quiver(x,y,U,V, sqrt(U**2+V**2)) title('Vector (quiver) plot of V_x=sin(x), V_y=cos(y)', fontsize=20) xlabel('x',fontsize=20) ylabel('y',fontsize=20)   For interacting, we need to look for ‘events’ like clicking or pressing a key and do something in response.  This is called binding events to a function and is done with the ‘connect’ function.   Types of events can be:  ’key_press_event’: returns what ever key pressed   ‘button_press_event’: returns the x and y coordinates of the location clicked and which button.   Several other types of events: see ‘help connect’   Here’s an example: plot a gaussian peaked where the user clicks. Make each new curve a random color and let user clear the curves with a ‘c’ press and quit with a ‘q’ press. def click(event): col=(rand(),rand(),rand()) xClick,yClick= event.xdata, event.ydata plot(x,gauss(x,A=yClick,x0=xClick),color=col) draw() def done(event1): if event1.key == 'q': close('all') if event1.key == 'c': clf() plot([0],[0] axis([0, 10, 0, 1]) draw() #now register the event to the above function cid = connect('button_press_event',click) cid1= connect('key_press_event',done) title("Click anywhere in the graph to draw a new Gaussian.\ \n Type 'q' to quit or 'c' to clear graph") xlabel("X") ylabel("Y") plot([0],[0]) #clears existing graphs axis([min(x), max(x), 0, 1]) show() ...
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