u27-MAP PROJECTIONS

u27-MAP PROJECTIONS - UNIT 27 MAP PROJECTIONS...

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Sheet1 Page 1 UNIT 27 - MAP PROJECTIONS <toc.html#UNIT27> UNIT 27 - MAP PROJECTIONS Compiled with assistance from Vicki Chmill, University of California, Santa Barbara ------------------------------------------------------------------------ For Information that Supplements the Contents of this Unit: Coordinates: Cylindrical, Spherical and Polar <http://ode.sjdccd.cc.ca.us/ODE/7-0/7-0-4-ma.html> -- Illustrated and described Errors in Maps <http://weber.u.washington.edu/~chrisman/G460/Lec22.html> (Chrisman/U of Washington) -- US data quality standards. Error, Accuracy and Precision <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/error/error.html> (Geographer's Craft) -- (A few graphics) of inaccuracy and imprecision cascading undocumented data Map Projection Overview <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj.html> (Dana/Geographer's Craft) -- Illustrated and described selected map projections: Cylindrical (Behrmann Equal Area, Mercator) Pseudocylindrical (Mollweide, Sinusoidal) Stereographic) Modified UTM Grid Projections <http://wwwsgi.ursus.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/acsm/ac94125.html> -- Article on applications for field and computer generated coordinate systems (McDowell). ------------------------------------------------------------------------ # A. INTRODUCTION <#SEC27.1> * Relevance to GIS <#SEC27.1.1> # B. DISTORTION PROPERTIES <#SEC27.2> * Tissot's Indicatrix <#SEC27.2.1> * Conformal (Orthomorphic) <#SEC27.2.2> * Equal area (Equivalent) <#SEC27.2.3> * Equidistant <#SEC27.2.4> # C. FIGURE OF THE EARTH <#SEC27.3> * 1. Plane <#SEC27.3.1>
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Sheet1 Page 2 * 2. Sphere <#SEC27.3.2> * 3. Spheroid or ellipsoid of rotation <#SEC27.3.3> * Accuracy of figures used <#SEC27.3.4> # D. GEOMETRIC ANALOGY <#SEC27.4> * Developable surfaces <#SEC27.4.1> * 1. Planar or azimuthal <#SEC27.4.2> * 2. Conic <#SEC27.4.3> * 3. Cylindrical <#SEC27.4.4> * 4. Non-Geometric (Mathematical) projections <#SEC27.4.5> # E. UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (UTM) <#SEC27.5> * Transverse Mercator Projection <#SEC27.5.1> * Zone System <#SEC27.5.2> * Distortion <#SEC27.5.3> * Coordinates <#SEC27.5.4> * Advantages <#SEC27.5.5> * Disadvantages <#SEC27.5.6> # F. STATE PLANE COORDINATES (SPC) <#SEC27.6> * Advantages <#SEC27.6.1> * Disadvantages <#SEC27.6.2> * Use in GIS <#SEC27.6.3> # REFERENCES <#SEC27.7> # DISCUSSION AND EXAM QUESTIONS <#SEC27.8> # NOTES <#SEC27.9> This unit needs many overhead illustrations. Of course, the best figures are in commercially published books. To avoid copyright infringements, we have not included the masters for overheads needed here. Instead, you are directed to the References which lists several basic texts with good illustrations. We have included suggested overheads giving references and specific page numbers to help you locate suitable figures. UNIT 27 - MAP PROJECTIONS Compiled with assistance from Vicki Chmill, University of California, Santa Barbara A. INTRODUCTION <#OUT27.1> * a map projection is a system in which locations on the curved surface of the earth are displayed on a flat sheet or surface according to some set of rules * mathematically, projection is a process of transforming global
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Sheet1 Page 3 location (j,l) to a planar position (x,y) or (r,q) o for example, the transformations for Mercator projection are: x = l y = loge tan(p/4 + j/2) Relevance to GIS <#OUT27.1.1> * maps are a common source of input data for a GIS o often input maps will be in different projections, requiring transformation of one or all maps to make coordinates compatible
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