u26-GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

u26-GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS - UNIT 26 - GENERAL...

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Sheet1 Page 1 UNIT 26 - GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS <toc.html#UNIT26> UNIT 26 - GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ For Information that Supplements the Contents of this Unit: Coordinate Systems <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys.html> (Dana/Geographer's Craft) -- Global systems: latitude, longitude, height, UTM systems: public land rectangular surveys, metes and bounds Miscellaneous systems: postal codes, navigational systems. Geodetic Datums <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/datum/datum.html> (Dana/Geographer's Craft) -- Introduction to geodetic datums of the earth: geometric models, reference ellipsoids, global coordinate systems, earth surfaces Global Positioning Systems <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html> (Dana/Geographer's Craft) -- US Department of Defense Satellite Navigation System signals Latitude and Longitude (illustrated) <http://www.cts.com/~rosfshp/images/ssaen001.gif> Modified UTM Grid Projections <http://wwwsgi.ursus.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/acsm/ac94125.html> -- Article on applications for field and computer generated coordinate systems (McDowell). ------------------------------------------------------------------------ # A. INTRODUCTION <#SEC26.1> # B. PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS - CARTESIAN COORDINATES <#SEC26.2> * Determining Coordinates <#SEC26.2.1> * Measuring Distance <#SEC26.2.2> # C. STORING COORDINATES <#SEC26.3> * Integers vs real numbers <#SEC26.3.1> * Computer Precision <#SEC26.3.2> * Precision of Cartesian Coordinates <#SEC26.3.3> * Propagation of coordinate errors <#SEC26.3.4> # D. PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS - POLAR COORDINATES <#SEC26.4> # E. GLOBAL COORDINATES - LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE <#SEC26.5>
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Sheet1 Page 2 * Determining Coordinates <#SEC26.5.1> * Important Terms <#SEC26.5.2> * Measuring distance <#SEC26.5.3> * Question of Precision <#SEC26.5.4> # F. DETERMINING POSITION <#SEC26.6> # REFERENCES <#SEC26.7> # DISCUSSION AND EXAM QUESTIONS <#SEC26.8> # NOTES <#SEC26.9> This unit begins the module on coordinate systems. An understanding of this important topic is critical when students begin to build databases from many different sources. If you find it difficult to draw a good diagram illustrating latitude and longitude, any introductory Geography textbook will have at least one figure showing this. UNIT 26 - GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS A. INTRODUCTION <#OUT26.1> * coordinates are used to identify locations on the earth's surface * are based on measurements of displacement from a given location * are of two types: o plane o global B. PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS - CARTESIAN COORDINATES <#OUT26.2> Determining Coordinates <#OUT26.2.1> * Cartesian coordinates are determined as follows: 1. locate an origin 2. set two axes through origin in fixed directions, at right angles to each other + by convention these are usually: + identified as x and y + x is horizontal and y vertical + i.e. y is anticlockwise from x
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u26-GENERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS - UNIT 26 - GENERAL...

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