u4-THE RASTER GIS - UNIT 4 THE RASTER GIS...

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Sheet1 Page 1 UNIT 4 - THE RASTER GIS <http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~courses/klink/gis.notes/ncgia/toc.html#UNIT4> UNIT 4 - THE RASTER GIS Compiled with assistance from Dana Tomlin, The Ohio State University ------------------------------------------------------------------------ For Information that Supplements the Contents of this Unit: IDRISI Tutorial <http://www.edvz.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/wwwtutor/tuthome.htm> (Lorup/Idrisi Project) Native American Research Information System (NARIS) <http://bioc09.uthscsa.edu/natnet/archive/nl/91c/0084.html> (AII/U of Oklahoma) Raster View of the World <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/datacon/datacon.html#Raster> (Foote and Huebner/Geographer's Craft) -- Both illustrated and described. Representation and Data Quality <http://weber.u.washington.edu/~chrisman/G460/Lec06.html> (Chrisman/U of Washington) Scale, Accuracy and Resolution in GIS <http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/gis/gisscale.html> (B.C. Environment) -- Map and display scale and uncertainty data and annotation ------------------------------------------------------------------------ # A. THE DATA MODEL <#SEC4.1> # B. CREATING A RASTER <#SEC4.2> * Cell by cell entry <#SEC4.2.1> * Digital data <#SEC4.2.2> # C. CELL VALUES <#SEC4.3> * Types of values <#SEC4.3.1> * One value per cell <#SEC4.3.2> # D. MAP LAYERS <#SEC4.4> * Resolution <#SEC4.4.1> * Orientation <#SEC4.4.2> * Zones <#SEC4.4.3> * Value <#SEC4.4.4> * Location <#SEC4.4.5>
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Sheet1 Page 2 # E. EXAMPLE ANALYSIS USING A RASTER GIS <#SEC4.5> * Objective <#SEC4.5.1> * Procedure <#SEC4.5.2> * Result <#SEC4.5.3> * Operations used <#SEC4.5.4> # REFERENCES <#SEC4.6> # EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS <#SEC4.7> # NOTES <#SEC4.8> Although most of the material in this Curriculum is designed to be as independent as possible from specific data models, it is necessary to deal with this basic concept early so that students can start hands-on exercises with a GIS program. Following Unit 5, we return to the more fundamental concepts and do not address specific vector GIS issues until Units 13 and 14. There are other several places these topics could be placed in a course sequence. We have tried to make Units 4 and 5 as independent as possible so that you can move them within the Curriculum relatively easily. UNIT 4 - THE RASTER GIS Compiled with assistance from Dana Tomlin, The Ohio State University A. THE DATA MODEL <#OUT4.1> * geographical variation in the real world is infinitely complex o the closer you look, the more detail you see, almost without limit * it would take an infinitely large database to capture the real world precisely o data must somehow be reduced to a finite and manageable quantity by a process of generalization or abstraction o geographical variation must be represented in terms of discrete elements or objects * the rules used to convert real geographical variation into discrete objects is the data model o Tsichritzis and Lochovsky (1977) define a data model as "a set of guidelines for the representation of the logical organization of the data in a database... (consisting) of named logical units of data and the relationships between them."1 * current GISs differ according the way in which they organize reality through the data model * each model tends to fit certain types of data and applications better than others * the data model chosen for a particular project or application is
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