History Chapter 1 Outline

History Chapter 1 Outline - Chapter 1 New World Beginnings...

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Chapter 1 – New World Beginnings I. Peopling the Americas a. Ice age altered geographic history of North America, connected Eurasia and North America with a land bridge nomadic Asian hunters cross b. End of ice age stranded hunters in North America c. Hunters reach southern tip of South America, 1492 – 52 million people, 2,000 languages d. Incas in Peru, Mayans in Central America, and Aztecs in Mexico = sophisticated civilizations i. 3 civilizations cultivated maize = Indian corn ii. No wheel / large draft animals, talented mathematicians, accurate astronomy iii. Aztecs offered human sacrifices to the gods II. The Earliest Americans a. 5000 B.C. – hunter gatherers develop corn in the highlands i. ii. Nomadic hunting agricultural villagers slowly b. 1200 B.C. – corn reached pueblo people in South America i. Irrigation system for corn ii. Multistoried, terraced buildings c. Native American development related to arrival of corn d. Mound builders of the Ohio River Valley, Mississippi culture of lower Midwest, Anasazi people of South West grew because of corn but fell in 1300 A.D. e. 1000 A.D. – corn reached South East, three-sister farming i. Beans, squash, corn f. Iroquois = great nation state of Mexico and Peru i. Inspired by Hiawatha ii. Northeast woodland in 16 th century iii. Known for political structure and organization
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g. Native Americans still mostly nomadic at the time i. Women – tended crops, men – hunted, gathered fuel, cleared fields ii. Civilizations, including Iroquois, developed maternal cultures h. i. Europeans believed they possessed the right to alter the earth, had technology to do so ii. Indians revered nature but sometimes ignited forest fires to clear forest for hunting 1. Indians = small in number, 4 million by 1492 2. Indians did not have means to alter nature III. Indirect discoverers of the New World a. Europeans equally unaware of existence of Americans i. Norse from Scandinavia discover American at Newfoundland/Finland in 1000 A.D. but abandoned b/c of lack of support b. Stronger European government Europeans travel to Africa, Asia, New World for trade and conquest i. Christian crusaders try to wrest control of Holy Land from Muslims and failed, but developed taste for Asian goods
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Salazar during the Spring '10 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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History Chapter 1 Outline - Chapter 1 New World Beginnings...

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