History Chapter 3 Outline - Chapter 3 Settling the Northern...

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Chapter 3 – Settling the Northern Colonies I. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism a. Martin Luther starts the Protestant Reformation by protesting against Catholic doctrines. Luther believed the Bible was the only source of God’s word, denounced priests and popes b. Religious leader John Calvin of Geneva elaborates on Luther’s ideal thru Calvinism i. Calvinism affected the thought and character of New England Puritans and other American setters ii. Calvin expresses ideals through doctrine Institutes of the Christian Religion iii. Calvin believed god = all-powerful, all-good, all-knowing, humans = weak and wicked b/c of sin, predestination & chosen elect for heaven c. King Henry VIII separated from Roman Catholic Church in 1530’s, making him the head of the Church of England i. Puritans wanted a complete separation from the Roman church, came from commercially depressed woolen districts ii. Separatists believed only “visible saints” should be admitted to church, appalled by religious equality by King Henry VIII broke away from Church of England iii. Calvinism helped ease social unrest and economical troubles d. King James I threatened to harass bothersome Separatists out of England b/c he feared that his subjects could defy him as a political leader since they already defied him as a spiritual leader II. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage of Plymouth a. Most well known Separatists migrated to Holland but resented “Dutchification” of children migration to America b. Holland Separatists travel to America on Mayflower with Virginia Company on 1620 i. Separatists surveyed area and chose Plymouth Bay to establish colony, landed on Plymouth Rock, and possessed no legal rights to land or authority to establish a government ii. Mayflower compact 1. precedent to constitutions 2. agreement to form a crude government and submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed on
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3. signed by 41 people and 11 ministers 4. step towards self government since male settlers were assembling to make their own laws in open-discussion town meetings c. The Pilgrim’s first winter of 1620 – 1621 left only 44 of out 102 people alive but not one of Separatists return to England in spring d. The Pilgrims had a prosperous autumn in 1621 and had their first Thanksgiving Day in New England e. Their economy was support by fur, fish, and lumber , Beaver = very important animal to Pilgrims f. William Bradford, a self taught scholar, was a self-taught scholar who knew many languages, was chosen 30 times in annual elections g. Villages and fisheries north of Plymouth Bay became the Massachusetts Bay and eventually absorbed Plymouth b/c of its economical and numerical superiority III. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth a. Separatist Pilgrims were dedicated extremists but moderate Puritans tried to reform the Church of England by gathering support from Parliament but gaining enemies, bishops and monarchs i. Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and allowed the Archbishop William Laud to persecute Puritans
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