History Chapter 8 Outline - Chapter 8 America Secedes from...

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Chapter 8 – America Secedes from the Empire I. Congress Drafts George Washington a. The most important action of the Congress was the chose George Washington to head the Continental Army, although it came with considerable misgivings i. Washington was not a true military genius b/c his highest right was colonel and largest command only numbered to 1,200 men ii. Washington possessed great leadership skills and immense strength of character b. The Continental Congress chose more wisely than it knew i. Americans were becoming distrustful of the large army being collected in Boston of New England. Choosing George Washington, who was from Virginia the most populous of the colonies, was a smart political move ii. Washington could not be accused of being a fortune seeker b/c he was a man of wealth, both by inheritance and marriage iii. As an aristocrat, Washington could be count on to “check the excesses of the mob” II. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings a. The clash of arms between the British and colonies continued on a contradictory basis in the beginning b/c the colonies were affirming their loyalty to the king and their desire to patch to patch up difficulties but were also shooting the king’s soldiers down i. In May 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, securing stores of gunpowder and artillery for the siege at Boston ii. In June 1775, the colonists seized Bunker Hill from the British when the British launched a full frontal attack instead of flanking the colonists entrenched on the hill. iii. In July 1775, the Continental Congress adapted the “Olive Branch Petition” in order to profess American loyalty to the crown and prevent further hostilities. But after Bunker Hill, George III proclaimed war with the colonies, the colonies in rebellion = treason, and hired Hessians b. George III hired Hessians b/c he needed the men while six German princes needed the money i. Americans called these European mercenaries Hessians b/c most of them came from the German principality of Hesse
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ii. Hiring Hessians shocked the colonists and promoted the Patriot cause against mother country England iii. Hessian mercenaries were good soldiers in a mechanical sense but many were interested in booty rather than duty and hundreds therefore abandoned with hopes of acquiring American land III. The Abortive Conquest of Canada a. In October 1775, the British burned Falmouth (Portland), Maine b. In the same Autumn, the colonists undertook an invasion of Canada under Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold i. American leaders believed the French were restless under British power but in reality, the French preferred the British who had treated them generously through the Quebec Act of 1774 over the plundering Americans ii. A successful assault on Canada would add a 14 th colony and deprive the British of a base for striking the colonists iii. The invasion of Canada contradicted the colonists’ claim that they were fighting defensively and was undisguised offensive warfare iv.
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