bMorphology - bMorphology 1.0 Introduction morphology = the...

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bMorphology 1.0 Introduction morphology = the study/science of form for language, this means the form of “words” *hard to define a word -a string of sounds (or a gesture) that refers to an entity/concept in the world mental dictionary: lexicon store of all “words” BUT ALSO linguistic rules for forming complex words, phrases, sentences, etc. -homophones: same sound, different meanings (don’t worry about spelling—imagine as though you are illiterate!) -synonyms: same/similar meaning, different sound Lexical Items (Words) : Open Class of content words that refer easily to entities/concepts in world -adjective -adverb -noun -verb productive in the sense that new ones can be made/derived easily Functional Items (Words): Closed Class of functional words that have some grammatical function -auxiliaries (be, have, can, must, etc) -conjunctions (and, but, or, that, if, etc) -determiners (articles, quantifiers, etc.) -prepositions -pronouns NOT productive—not going to add or “creatively” derive new ones to add to the already existing list
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2.0 Word Formation -a word is made up of MORPHEMES and may be SIMPLE or COMPLEX A MORPHEME is a form that contains the smallest/most minimal unit of meaning Simple words are made up of ONE morpheme (1) bed (2) but (3) alligator (4) desire these are all FREE morphemes (they can stand on their own) they can also be the “root” of a complex word HOWEVER, morphemes can also relate to information that is grammatical (such as plural, feminine, etc.) OR lexical, which will change the meaning (and sometimes the category) of the word (such as re-, un-, -able, etc) Complex words are made up of 2 or more morphemes: one of which is the ROOT (carries the fundamental meaning) and the other is an affix the affix is a BOUND morpheme (5) bed (simple root) + -s (plural) = beds (complex) (6) want (simple root) + -ed (past) = wanted (complex)
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course LIN 200 taught by Professor Nagy during the Summer '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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bMorphology - bMorphology 1.0 Introduction morphology = the...

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