Lecture Notes--Acquisition

Lecture Notes--Acquisition - Language Acquisition Chapter 7...

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Language Acquisition Chapter 7 to p. 339 Chapter 8 pp 353-355; pp. 383-387 1.0 Intro Different types of language acquisition: -child L1 (first-language acquisition) -child 2L1 (bilingual first-language acquisition—simultaneously) -child L2 (child second-language acquisition > 2-3 years old) -adult L2 (adult second-language acquisition > ~13-15 yrs old) HERE: we will consider child L1 and adult L2 1.1 Differences child L1 and adult L2 acquisition MAIN DIFFERENCE: normally-developing children will inevitably be successful in acquiring a first language given adequate and consistent input VS adults (who have already acquired an L1) may fall short of “ultimate attainment” for certain areas (phonology, morphology, syntax, etc) and/or domains (i.e. specific syntactic domain) of the second language A VARIETY of variables contribute to this basic difference between L1 and adult L2 acquisition: 1) Age differences - biological differences —issue of maturation of cognitive abilities - input —quantity, quality and mode of input varies greatly if you’re a young child vs. a mature adult -adults have better “ metalinguistic awareness ” and mostly approach learning a new language through a literate eye VS children “metalinguistic awareness” is the conscious knowledge an individual has about their own use of language 2) Affective Factors this variable can often be affected by the context of acquisition—whether learning because of one’s passion/interest to learn a new language vs. whether learning because of forced migration/political enforcement, for example 1
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AFFECTIVE VARIABLES AFFECTING OUTCOMES -motivation of a individual to learn -attitude towards learning/the language/culture -personality—whether an extrovert, introvert, etc. 3) Existent Linguistic Knowledge -babies start off as “blank slates” and use input to form unique linguistic representations VS -adults have already acquired a complete set of linguistic representations AND THEREFORE may use this knowledge to guide the learning of a new language Considerations that must be made in acquiring a new language as an adult: transfer/interference/influence : the use of L1 phonological/morphosyntactic representations in building representations of the L2 Interlanguage : the intermediate grammatical representations that L2 speakers of a language have through the course of acquisition—not a “random” grammar, but constrained according to a variety of factors, including representations provided by their L1, the L2 and Universal constraints 2.0 Child L1 essential aspect of acquiring a language: INPUT INPUT: evidence for how language should sound, be structured and used appropriately for any particular language “logical problem” of child acquisition: input that children hear is NOT PERFECT, but they still acquire a complete grammar very quickly, easily and uniformly without explicit instruction input is highly variable input may contain errors input doesn’t contain all combinations of sounds/structures children will have to
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course LIN 200 taught by Professor Nagy during the Summer '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Lecture Notes--Acquisition - Language Acquisition Chapter 7...

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