Lecture Notes-Phonetics

Lecture Notes-Phonetics - Phonetics pp. 200-204 pp. 204-208...

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Phonetics pp. 200-204 pp. 204-208 (for basic understanding of what we’re going to analyze) SEE p. 209—become familiar with basic anatomy of vocal tract pp. 210 Consonants-230 (up to Diacritics) 1.0 Intro Phonetics: the study of speech sounds (part of the study of knowledge of sound: phonology) RECALL: a person’s language “knowledge” is related to the use of sounds (the their combinations) to communicate meaning through words and structures orthography/writing is “secondary” in the study of language knowledge HERE: we’re interested how sounds exist for illiterate (all) speakers!!! 3 areas of phonetic inquiry: i) acoustic phonetics—physical properties of sound ii) auditory phonetics—perception of sounds iii) articulatory phonetics—production of sounds HERE: we will be looking at issues related to the study of articulatory phonetics BECOME FAMILIAR with the anatomy of the vocal tract (p. 209): -lips -teeth -tongue: apex, front, blade, back -alveolar ridge -(hard) palate -velum (soft palate) -uvula -glottis 2 fundamental natural classes of sounds: i) consonants: some restriction/closure of airflow in vocal tract—use or no use of vocal cords ii) vowels: free airflow and use of vocal cords the way we classify sounds as being linguistically significant is if their use produces a form with a distinct meaning: bat vs. pat (and so need to identify the characteristics of the sounds that begin these two words for English—what makes them linguistically distinct??) to represent “sounds” graphically we will place each “distinctive” sound in square brackets (ie. [b] vs. [p])
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2.0 Consonants 2 large classes of consonants: i) obstruents: partial or full obstruction of airflow ii) sonorants: relatively free airflow further subdivided according to place of articulation AND manner of articulation 2.1 Place of articulation (think: areas of the vocal tract) i) bilabial: touching of lips [p], [b], [m] ([p] & [b]: obstruent; [m] sonorant) ii) labiodental: touching bottom lip to upper teeth [f], [v] (obstruents) iii) interdental: tip of tongue between upper and lower teeth [ ] “thin”, [ð] “then” Ɵ (obstruents) iv) alveolars: tongue touches/comes close to alveolar ridge [t], [d], [n], [s], [z], [l], [r] (obstruents EXC *retroflex [r]—English way vs. trill [r]—“rolling” [r] Spanish way
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Lecture Notes-Phonetics - Phonetics pp. 200-204 pp. 204-208...

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