Lecture Notes--Phonology

Lecture Notes--Phonology - Phonology Recommended Reading:...

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Phonology Recommended Reading: pp. 243-274 1.0 Intro Phonology = study of ways speech sounds form systems and patterns in human language -phonology: 1) as representation of sounds and sound patterns in a speaker’s grammar 2) as study of sound patterns in a language or in human language Phonological knowledge includes: -knowing the “distinctive” sounds of one’s language -knowing the features that characterize these sounds -the rules of combining sounds in one’s languages -the phonetic consequences of combining sounds in one’s language we will consider these here MOSTLY for English in combining sounds: must consider their distribution for all words: word-initial sounds word-final sounds for syllables: syllable-initial sounds—if C = “onset” -can be simple C- or complex CC- EX: simple onset: p-it complex onset: sp-it syllable-final sounds—if C = “coda” -can be simple –C or complex –CC EX: simple coda: pi-t complex coda: mi-lk (medial) V: “peak” some English sounds are in “complementary distribution”: they only occur in unique contexts EX: -[h] only occurs word/syll initial VS. [ŋ] only occurs word/syll final -nasalized Vs only occur before a nasalized C
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2.0 Distinctive vs. Non-distinctive sounds there are 2 levels at which we consider “sounds” 1) abstract/representational level: a “sound” as it’s represented in the brain the make-up of features these are DISTINCTIVE: PHONEMES a change of phoneme = a change in meaning (when all other sounds stay same) EX minimal pairs pat vs. bat /p/ /b/ pat vs. pad /t/ /d/ SO voicing must be a distinctive feature! pat vs. mat /p/ /m/ sat vs. knat /s/ /n/ SO nasalization must be a distinctive feature! (at least for consonants!!!) bet vs. bait / / ɛ /e/ SO tense/lax is a distinctive feature! a minimal set
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course LIN 200 taught by Professor Nagy during the Summer '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Lecture Notes--Phonology - Phonology Recommended Reading:...

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