Lecture Notes-syntax

Lecture Notes-syntax - Syntax pp.81-111 pp.116-121 1.0...

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Syntax pp.81-111 pp.116-121 1.0 Intro to Syntax and Constituency Syntax = knowledge of sentences/phrases and structures (basic definition!) Phrases/sentences made up of: o Content words/lexical items: nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, etc these belong to OPEN CLASS of words o Function words/grammatical items: determiners, prepositions, auxiliaries, conjunctions, etc. these belong to CLOSED CLASS of words **determiners: the items that precede nouns that “determine” the reference of the noun—definite and indefinite articles (the; a), possessive and demonstrative determiners (my, your, their; this, that) To identify the structures that are part of any particular language we use analytic tools that determine if a structure is: well-formed OR ill-formed different languages will have different structural rules that may or may not be the same as English—HERE, we will mostly consider the rules of English and how to analyze structure using these rules Ill-formed for English (for different reasons): (1) *The man broke. (2) *I found in the garden. (3) *Peter took picture of me. (4) *Went to the mall. (5) *He grabbed dog tail. BUT the following are not ill-formed syntactically (6) The man broke the love. (7) I went to the pencil and gave it some ideas. these may be semantically odd, but not grammatically ill-formed SYNTACTIC knowledge: how to combine lexical pieces into phrases and phrases into sentences this is NOT done linearly: there are certain dependencies in a phrase that are stronger than others HOW DO WE KNOW THIS? Structural ambiguities (8) a picture of Susana and Mary’s aunt the phrase in (8) can refer to a picture of one person (the aunt of both Susana and 1
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Mary) OR two people (Susana and the aunt of Mary) (9) Peter drew a picture of Mary in the garden. (9) can refer to the fact that Peter drew a picture in his room recalling Mary sitting in the garden OR can refer to the fact that Peter drew a picture of Mary while he was in the garden in order to determine how the structure is represented, we have to know which parts of the sentence form CONSTITUENTS (the “phrases” that establish the overall meaning) S (a sentential phrase), NP (noun phrase), VP (verb phrase), PP (prepositional phrase), AdjP (adjectival phrase) and AdvP (adverbial phrase) -ALL these phrases have “heads” that are characterized by the lexical category that determines their phrase: NPs have noun heads VPs have verb heads PPs have preposition heads AdjPs have adjective heads AdvPs have adverb heads **a phrase can be made up of a head + another phrase, like all preposition phrases: (10) in the garden = [ PP in [ NP the garden] ] OR can be just one word which represents both the head and phrase: (11) pretty = [ AdjP pretty] SO noun phrases may often “contain” other phrases depending on how much of a subset of the noun you want to refer to (12) a) the picture = [ NP the picture] b) the pretty picture = [ NP the [ AdjP
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course LIN 200 taught by Professor Nagy during the Summer '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Lecture Notes-syntax - Syntax pp.81-111 pp.116-121 1.0...

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