Lecture #4 - Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected that you...

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3 Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected that you understand the following basic terms and concepts prior to this lecture. From chapter 22 • taxon/taxa •t a x o n om y •p h y l o g e n y From chapter 27 •m i t o s i s • meiosis •h a p l o i d •d i p l o i d Pre-lab flow charts for lab need to be submitted this week and in all subsequent weeks 4 Lecture 4 Phylogeny, origin & diversity of eukaryotes 14 September 2010 BIOL 111 – Organismal Biology
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5 Phylogeny, origin and diversity of eukaryotes lecture outline 1. Taxonomy & phylogeny 2. Origin of eukaryotes 3. Diversity of “protists” 6 Which group shows the greatest species diversity (# of species) 0% 67% 1% 1% 30% 1. Protists 2. Fungi 3. Plants 4. Arthropods 5. Vertebrates
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7 ~1.7 million species – how to organize? Taxonomy •Tw o k e y i d e a s –B inom ia l nomenc la tu re •Genu s spe c ie s •e .g . , Homo sapiens •A l so :Homo sapiens , H. sapiens – Hierarchy Carolus Linnaeus 1758, Sweden Sand sapiens Species Grained Homo Genus Finely Hominidae Family On Primate Order Chess Mammalia Class Play Chordata Phylum Kings Animalia Kingdom 8 Classification system has changed over time with discovery of new groups and techniques. Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Plantae Plantae Plantae Fungi Fungi Plantae Vegetabilia Eukarya Protista Protista Protista Eukaryota Archaea Archae- bacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Monera Monera Prokaryota Protista (not treated) Woese 1990 3 domains Woese 1977 6 kingdoms Whittaker 1969 5 kingdoms Copeland 1956 4 kingdoms Chatton 1937 2 empires Haeckel 1866 3 kingdoms Linnaeus 1735 2 kingdoms
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9 Which domains are most closely related? bacter ia & arch a ea bacteria & e u ka r ya eukarya & archaea All ar e eq lly elated. 9% 2% 87% 2% 1. bacteria & archaea 2. bacteria & eukarya 3. eukarya & archaea 4. All are equally related. 10 How to read a phylogenetic tree (Part 1 - vocabulary) Common ancestor Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee ROOT NODE CLADE OUTGROUP SISTER GROUP
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11 How to read a phylogenetic tree (Part 2) Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee 12 Are these two phylogenies the same? Y e s No 60% 40% 1. Yes 2. No A B CD B D A C
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13 Analogy vs. homology Bat wing Bird wing Insect wing Homologous Analogous Homology • similarity due to common ancestor Analogy • similarity due to common environment convergent evolution Bones are homologous, wings are not 14 Shark vs. dolphin body form? Homolo g y An a logy 69% 31% 1. Homology 2. Analogy
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15 How to build a phylogeny •S tep 1 –ge t a l is t o f “cha rac te rs ”o r t ra i ts for each taxon 2 (op t iona l ) –iden t i fy o rde r o f progression on traits (jaw came after no jaw) and need to be looking at homologous traits 3 –le t a compu r f ind g roup ings , trying to find monophyletic groupings 16 Which is a monophyletic group?
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2010 for the course BIOL BIOL 111 taught by Professor Roffey during the Fall '09 term at McGill.

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Lecture #4 - Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected that you...

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