lecture1-15.ppt

Lecture1-15 - Lecture 1 Biochemistry the chemistry of life Introduction Thermodynamics Why study biochemistry Biochemistry is the chemistry of life

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Lecture 1 Biochemistry, the chemistry of life Introduction Thermodynamics
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Why study biochemistry? Biochemistry is the chemistry of life Biochemistry is an intrinsically beautiful and fascinating body of knowledge (p. 15, 5th Edition) Modern biochemical knowledge is revolutionizing drug discovery for the treatment of human diseases
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Science , 291 , 2613 (2001) lecture11.pdf
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Questions What is acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2)? Why does removal of ACC2 lead to continuous fatty acid oxidation? ( Lecture 11 ) What is the potential relevance of this discovery to human health? ( Lecture 12 ) How does one identify and characterize ACC inhibitors? ( Lecture 12 )
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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA CH 3 CO-SCoA + H CO 3 + ATP O 2 C CH 2 CO-SCoA + ADP + P i + H + Requires the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP
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Two steps in the ACC reaction ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin, catalyzed by the biotin carboxylase (BC) activity Biotin is linked to a lysine residue in the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) Transfer of the carboxyl group from carboxybiotin to acetyl- CoA, catalyzed by carboxyltransferase (CT) activity
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Biotin on a swinging arm BCCP BC CT
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Malic Enzyme (ME) Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate Depends on either NAD + or NADP + as cofactors Requires divalent cations (Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ ) for activity Widely distributed and highly conserved in nature (bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants, animals). Has important biological functions COO Ð COO Ð HO H H H + NAD(P) + COO Ð H O H H + NAD(P) H + CO 2 M ++
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Amino acid sequence conservation Human ME E. coli ME 584 residues 574 residues 40% identity Lecture 12
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Self study (lecture1b.ppt) Three domains of life, bacteria, archaea, eukarya Common evolutionary origin of all living things Common elements in living systems Common molecules in living systems Biochemical reactions
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The flow of genetic information DNA RNA Protein Gene Messenger Function Transcription Translation
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An animal cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Ribosome Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Lysosome Vacuole Microbody (peroxisome)
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Cell content can be viewed by cryoelectron tomography O. Medalia, et al. , W. Baumeister, Science , 298 , 1209, (2002) A portion of a Dictyostelium cell 8700 Å 8000 Å 970 Å Actin filaments Ribosomes Membranes
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Approximate chemical composition of a bacterial cell Water Inorganic ions Sugars and precursors Amino acids and precursors Nucleotides and precursors Lipids and precursors Other small molecules Macromolecules Percentage of cell weight 70 1 3 0.4 0.4 2 0.2 22 Number of types of molecules 1 20 200 100 200 50 ~200 ~5000
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Small molecules • Water (H 2 O) Salts (NaCl, KCl,phosphates, sulfates, …) Sugars (glucose, fructose, …) ( Lecture 10 ) Lipids (fats) ( Lectures 10, 11 ) Amino acids (Lecture 2 ) Nucleotides ( Lecture 1 ) Cofactors, vitamins ( Lecture 6 ) others
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2010 for the course ECON ddd taught by Professor Ddd during the Fall '10 term at Columbia.

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Lecture1-15 - Lecture 1 Biochemistry the chemistry of life Introduction Thermodynamics Why study biochemistry Biochemistry is the chemistry of life

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