ES271_MacroClimate_I

ES271_MacroClimate_I - Climate Patterns Climate Patterns...

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Unformatted text preview: Climate Patterns Climate Patterns Development of Biomes Principles ­ Temperature Principles ­ Temperature Heat ­­­> expansion Cool ­­­> contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles ­ Temperature Principles ­ Temperature • • • Heat ­­­> expansion Cool ­­­> contraction Heat ­­­> lighter (per cubic foot) ­­­> rise • Cool ­­­> heavier ­­­> sink Principles ­ Temperature Principles ­ Temperature Principles ­ Pressure Principles ­ Pressure • Pressure increases ­­­> contraction forced ­­­> warms Pressure decreased ­­­> expansion ­­­> cools • Application Application • Atmospheric depth = ~120 km ("atmospheric interface" by the Space Shuttle) Principles ­ general Principles ­ general • Solar energy coming to earth – 50% of that reaching the outer atmosphere reaches the earth’s surface – Gases scatter blue light – Dust scatters red light – Water scatters all wavelengths – Some infrared absorbed by water and CO2 • Cool air ­ holds less water than warm air Differential energy input Differential energy input • Direct rays provide more energy/area than indirect rays on the earth’s surface Distance through Atmosphere Distance through Atmosphere Seasonality Seasonality • The solar equator moves between 23.5 deg. N and 23.5 deg. S (summer to winter solstice). – 23.5 degrees N = Tropic of Cancer – 23.5 degrees S – Tropic of Capricorn • With more incoming energy/area, the equator is more uniformly hot No. & So. latitudes have warm/cold seasons. • Summer in No. Hemisphere Winter in No. Hemisphere Seasonality in Tropical Areas Seasonality in Tropical Areas • Apparent movement of the sun from 23.5º N to 23.5º S – intertropical convergence Wet and dry seasons in seasonal forests. • Greater distance from Equator means longer dry season Season Sun Angle Season Sun Angle • Sun angle changes dramatically over the seasons ­ particularly toward the poles Atmospheric Global Circulation Atmospheric Global Circulation • Sun warms equatorial air – Reradiates – Radiation is the same at any latitude for a given temperature Net heat gain and loss Net heat gain and loss • Net gain in energy in latitudes below 38 deg., but a net loss above the 38 deg. latitudes Global circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. ...
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