This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Climate Patterns Climate Patterns
Development of Biomes Principles Temperature Principles Temperature
Heat > expansion Cool > contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles Temperature Principles Temperature
• • • Heat > expansion Cool > contraction Heat > lighter (per cubic foot) > rise
• Cool > heavier > sink Principles Temperature Principles Temperature Principles Pressure Principles Pressure
• Pressure increases > contraction forced > warms Pressure decreased > expansion > cools • Application Application
• Atmospheric depth = ~120 km ("atmospheric interface" by the Space Shuttle) Principles general Principles general
• Solar energy coming to earth
– 50% of that reaching the outer atmosphere reaches the earth’s surface – Gases scatter blue light – Dust scatters red light – Water scatters all wavelengths – Some infrared absorbed by water and CO2
• Cool air holds less water than warm air Differential energy input Differential energy input
• Direct rays provide more energy/area than indirect rays on the earth’s surface Distance through Atmosphere Distance through Atmosphere Seasonality Seasonality • The solar equator moves between 23.5 deg. N and 23.5 deg. S (summer to winter solstice).
– 23.5 degrees N = Tropic of Cancer – 23.5 degrees S – Tropic of Capricorn • With more incoming energy/area, the equator is more uniformly hot No. & So. latitudes have warm/cold seasons. • Summer in No. Hemisphere Winter in No. Hemisphere Seasonality in Tropical Areas Seasonality in Tropical Areas
• Apparent movement of the sun from 23.5º N to 23.5º S – intertropical convergence Wet and dry seasons in seasonal forests. • Greater distance from Equator means longer dry season Season Sun Angle Season Sun Angle
• Sun angle changes dramatically over the seasons particularly toward the poles Atmospheric Global Circulation Atmospheric Global Circulation
• Sun warms equatorial air
– Reradiates – Radiation is the same at any latitude for a given temperature Net heat gain and loss Net heat gain and loss
• Net gain in energy in latitudes below 38 deg., but a net loss above the 38 deg. latitudes Global circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. ...
View Full Document
- Spring '10