BB lecture 9-5 atoms, bonds

BB lecture 9-5 atoms, bonds - Chapter 2: Chemical Context...

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Chapter 2: Chemical Context of Life Learning objectives: 1. Know the basic structural components of an atom. 2. Be able to explain the role of electrons in the reactivity of atoms. 3. Understand the atomic basis of chemical bonds and their relative strengths: non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, & hydrogen. 4. Understand that a chemical reaction (“rx”) involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds. 6. Describe what is meant by “chemical equilibrium”. 7. Be cognizant of the relationship between structure and function at the molecular level. Terms to know include: element, compound (cpd), atomic number & at. mass, isotope, potential energy, valence shell, valence electrons, electronegativity, reactants, products, anion, cation, free radical …
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Figure 2.7
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Figure 2.8
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The types of chemical bonds we want to know about are……… Covalent Ionic Hydrogen
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Covalent bonds [a strong bond] The sharing of valence electrons Know the difference between a molecule and a compound ( cpd ): A cpd is a fixed ratio of 2 or more kinds of elements A molecule is 2 or more atoms covalently bonded together Figure 2.10 Question: Is “salt” like NaCl a molecule?
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Atoms held together by covalent bonds are sharing electrons to ‘fill’ vacancies in their valence shell by … A single bond the sharing of one pair of valence electrons A double bond the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons A triple bond - the sharing of…. ???
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Ionic bonds – The attraction of cations and anions to each other [dry, a strong bond - but weakens as it dissolves (hydrates)] From earlier slide: A compound is a fixed ratio of 2 or more kinds of elements Cpds formed by ionic bonds are ionic cpds (aka ‘salts’) Figure 2.13
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Monovalent cation examples H + hydrogen ion (aka a “proton”) Na + sodium ion K + potassium ion NH 4 + ammonium ion Li + lithium ion Divalent cation examples Mg ++ magnesium ion Ca ++ calcium ion Monovalent anion examples Cl chloride ion Additional ions you should be able to know/recognize…
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Hydrogen bonds – The attraction of hydrogen atoms on one molecule to [ a WEAK bond] partially negative areas of another molecule.
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BB lecture 9-5 atoms, bonds - Chapter 2: Chemical Context...

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