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BB lecture 10-12 signal tranduction

BB lecture 10-12 signal tranduction - Chapter 11(pp 205-215...

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Chapter 11 (pp. 205-215): Signal transduction Learning objectives Understand what protein phosphorylation and protein dephosphorylation means. Remember the stages of a signal transduction pathway. Know the difference between a receptor protein and a ligand molecule. Recognize that receptors may be on the cell surface (membrane receptors) OR inside the cell (intracellular receptors). Be able to illustrate how these work: ion channel receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and G-protein-linked receptors. Learn how a signal is amplified by the recipient cell. Know examples of second messengers. Explain how a given ligand can elicit different responses in different cell types. Terms to know include: phosphorylation cascade, kinase, phosphatase, adenylyl cyclase, IP 3, , DAG, scaffolding protein, dimerization,…..
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What is it ?.. What is it ?.. It’s when a phosphate functional group (-PO 4 ) is added to a protein. Why ?.. Why ?.. To regulate the activity of a protein. REVIEW: Protein phosphorylation How ? .. How ? .. The addition of –PO 4 causes a conformational change in the shape/function of a protein. In most cases the protein is “activated”…(in some cases it is “de-activated”). To KNOW ..... the enzymes that ADD phosphates to proteins are called protein kinases Protein DE- phosphorylation To KNOW…. The enzymes that REMOVE phosphate groups from proteins are called protein phosphatases
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EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Receptor Signal Molecule Aka “LIGAND molecule Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Activation of cellular response Figure 11.5 Overview of cell signaling Reception 1 Transduction 2 Response 3
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Reception : A signal molecule ( ligand ) binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape…this is often the initial ‘transduction’ of the signal The ligand-receptor binding is highly specific Only specific cells (the ‘target’ cells ) will respond to specific ligands A receptor protein may be located … on the CELL’S SURFACE ( most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins ) or INSIDE the cell Intracellular receptors may be in the cytoplasm , or in the nucleus These consist of cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins Small or hydrophobic signal molecules use these receptors
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Figure 11.6 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane The steroid hormone testosterone passes through the plasma membrane. Testosterone binds to a receptor protein in the cytoplasm, activating it. The hormone- receptor complex enters the nucleus and binds to specific genes.
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