BB lecture 10-31 photosynthesis I

BB lecture 10-31 photosynthesis I - Chapter 9 wrap-up...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 wrap-up Learning objective Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and fermentation Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O 2 present Fermentation O 2 present Cellular respiration Ethanol or lactate Acetyl CoA MITOCHONDRION Citric acid cycle Figure 9.18 Pyruvate as a key juncture in catabolism In lactic acid fermentation- Pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH lactate is the end product In alcohol fermentation Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps , one of which releases CO 2 Figure 9.17 Fermentation A comparison of ethanol & lactate pathways 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetaldehyde 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Lactate (b) Lactic acid fermentation H H OH CH 3 C O O C C O CH 3 H C O CH 3 O C O C O CH 3 O C O C OH H CH 3 CO 2 2 2 Pyruvate +2 H + Two examples: Some bacteria can transfer electrons to sulfate (SO ) reducing it to H 2 S . Other bacteria can transfer electrons to nitrate ( NO 3- ) reducing it to nitrite ( NO 2- ). Like aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration involves: > glycolysis, > a transition reaction, > the citric acid cycle, and > an electron transport chain . Fermentation oxygen is not required Fermentation is an anaerobic breakdown of glucose in which an ORGANIC molecule is the final electron acceptor. Examples: Some bacteria, yeasts, muscle cells Fermentation involves: > only glycolysis (not the citric acid cycle, & not the ETC)and > the reduction of pyruvate Remember Finally What is the evolutionary significance of glycolysis ? Glycolysis Occurs in essentially all organisms Probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before there was oxygen in the atmosphere Figure 10.6 The electromagnetic spectrum Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Micro- waves Radio waves 105 nm 103 nm 1 nm 103 nm 106 nm 1 m 106 nm 103 m 380 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm Visible light...
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BB lecture 10-31 photosynthesis I - Chapter 9 wrap-up...

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