BME303_lecture6 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 3:...

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BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 3: Digital Logic Structures
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BME303 Intro. to Computing Problem Language Algorithms Data Path Memory Storage Elements R-S Latch Gated D latch Register Devices, Circuits, … 4 Machine (ISA) Architecture Micro-architecture Circuits Devices Logic Structures Decoder Mux (multiplexer) Adder Logic Gates NOT OR AND Other gates Transistors Bottom Up
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BME303 Intro. to Computing First transistor and beyond First transistor was invented in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley at Bell Laboratories (the three shared a Nobel prize later) Shockley started a semiconductor company in Palo Alto, and staff of folded 5 company invented the integrated circuit (the "chip") and found Intel Corporation By 1960, most computers used transistors for logic , and ferrite cores for memory (Shanghai-born American physicists, An Wang and Way-Dong Woo ) Memory chips (digital circuits) replaced cores in the 1970's Workbench of John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Laboratories
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BME303 Intro. to Computing Memory • primary access by the CPU or secondary (indirect) access by the CPU. Based on the speed of access to the memory. • volatile or non-volatile is a distinction based on technology (magnetic vs. electrical, etc.). Volatile memory requires power to maintain its stored 6 information. • Read-only memory, or read-write is a distinction based on properties of the memory. Read only memory, or "ROM", is not modifiable. • Random-Access or Sequential-Access, is a distinction based on the mechanism of reading the memory.
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BME303 Intro. to Computing Disclaimer • Not all electronic computers are made from transistors. Electronic logic can be built from – vacuum tubes – magnetic amplifiers, core, bubbles – superconducting cryotrons 7 – superconducting Josephson junctions So, why transistors then … "Had the automobile developed at a pace (equal) to that of the computer during the past twenty years, today a Rolls Royce would cost less than $3.00, get 3 million miles to the gallon, deliver enough power to drive (the ship) the Queen Elizabeth II, and six of them would fit on the head of a pin!"
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BME303 Intro. to Computing April 1972 Name of Processor: 8008 Clock speed: 200 kHz Number of transistors: 3,500 September 1978 Name of Processor: 8086 Clock speed: 10 MHz Number of transistors: 29,000 Intel Processors March 1993 Name of Processor: Pentium Clock speed: 60 MHz Number of transistors: 3.1 million May 1997 Name of Processor: Pentium II Clock speed: 300 MHz Number of transistors: 3.3 million 8 February 1982 Name of Processor: 286 Clock speed: 12 MHz Number of transistors: 134,000
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BME303_lecture6 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 3:...

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