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Unformatted text preview: Robyn Ingerham POL5551 Research Paper Many significant issues and controversies have arisen post Cold War regarding Weapons proliferation. According to the United States State Department, Weapons proliferation is defined as The spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Horizontal proliferation refers to the spread of WMD to states that have not previously possessed them. Vertical proliferation refers to an increase in the amount or devastating capacity of any currently existing WMD arsenals within a state. (1) The United Nations Security Council declared in January 1992 that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction constitutes a threat to international peace and security. (Pg 92 POWMD) Currently the United Nations (UN) has 190 member countries, but only eight of them are known to have WMD capabilities. They are: the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, China, India and Pakistan. The UN believes Israel and North Korea possess nuclear weapons/capabilities, but there is no solid evidence. Weapons proliferation today is on the move, more than a dozen countries had started weapons programs in the past, but all were stopped prior to full-up capabilities coming online. Today several states and sub-national groups to include Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea and the Al-Queda are pursuing clandestine nuclear weapons programs. (2) These counties want prestige, the added security, domestic control and diplomatic bargaining power that comes with possessing WMD. They want a place on the World stage and are using the avenue of weapons proliferation to gain the power needed to get them on that stage. In order to control Weapons Proliferation, policymakers must engage in liberalism based governing, providing the greatest possible international cooperation. Secondly, as a prerequisite to obtaining that cooperation, they must act to strengthen international norms, or rules of acceptable behavior, against the acquisition and use of WMDs. To meet these conditions policy makers must give the goal of nonproliferation higher priority than they did during the Cold War. The United States cooperated in the development of the British nuclear weapons program; the Soviet Union helped China before the Sine-Soviet split in 1959; French nuclear assistance may have advanced the Israeli weapon program; China reportedly helped Pakistan; Israel reported helped South Africa. (Pg 92) Liberalism and Realism are two of the many examples that can explain the reasoning behind all the controversy associated with the UN and proliferant nations . Liberalism stresses the possibilities for cooperation. According to Stephen Walt, Liberalism is defined in three ways. The first is argued that economic interdependence would discourage states from using force against each other because warfare would threaten each sides prosperity....
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- Winter '08